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OKLAHOMA 




OrraA.SHUTTEEJREAS. 

EL RENO. 



JOS-MEIBERQEN, CHAIRMAN* 

ENID. 




THE 



OKLAHOMA BOOK 



EXTRACTS 



FROM THE 



OFFICIAL REPORT 



GOV. T. B. FERGUSON 



SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 



♦ Showing the Marvelous Growth of Oklahoma, 
the Youngest Child of the 
Louisiana Purchase. 



THE STATE CAPITA!, COMPANY 
Guthrie, Oklahoma. 



.0^ 



i 



0.1>rD',''' 



RE P O ET 



OF THE 



GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



Territory of Oklahoma, 

Executive Department, 
Guthrie, Ohla., Septemher 15, 1903. 
Sir: In compliance with, your communication dated June 27, 
1903, I take pleasure in transmitting to you herewith my report of 
the affairs, progress, and development of the Territory of Oklahoma 
for the year ended June 30, 1903. 

Very respectfully T. B. Ferguson, 

Governor. 
Hon. E. a. Hitchcock, 

Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 



A perusal of the following pages will disclose the fact that the 
Territory of Oklahoma has an area of 38,830 square miles, is subdivided 
into 2G counties, and has an aggregate population of 650,000. She 
has 178,964 school children and 2,192 district schoolhouses valued at 
$1,347,257; also 7 higher institutions of learning, having a total en- 
rollment of 2,818 last year; a school fund arising from the leasing of 
school land amounting to $181,828.88, which was apportioned during 
the year. 

Oklahoma leads in railway building, having completed over 1,000 
miles of new railroad, and on March 1 had over 2,500 miles of main 
track and grade completed. The assessed value of the eight lines of 
railway is $7,851,187. The Territorial tax levy was 6 1-4 mills and the 
assessors, which was on a basis of about one-fourth actual value. The 
Territorial indebtedness is only $461,766.43. There were 7,451,918 
acres of land returnable for taxation. 

Oklahoma has 232 Territorial banks having a combined capitaliza- 
tion of $2,026,330. with deposits of over $7,000,000, and an average 
reserve of 52 per cent, being nearly four times the legal requirement. 
There are 79 national banks, whose combined capital amounts to 



4 REPOKT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

$3,792,500; the deposits therein are over $10,000,000, and they have 
and average reserve of 30 per cent. 

There are 193 licensed dentists, 403 registered pharmacists, and 
1,200 practicing physicians. 

There are 243 weekly newspapers published in the Territory. The 
public law library located at Guthrie is valued at $50,000. The Okla- 
homa National Guard is composed of 945 enlisted men. There is a 
church membership of nearly 100,000. There are 60 flouring mills 
whose combined capacity is over 10,000 barrels per day; 280 grain 
elevators having a combined capacity of 3,525,000 bushels. This 
year's wheat crop was 36,000,000 bushels, and the corn is estimated 
about the same as last year— 65,000,000 bushels. 

Oklahoma's commerce amounted to over 27,000 carloads of various 
commodities shipped into and over 35,600 carloads shipped out of the 
Territory. 

There has been a phenomenal growth of all cities and towns, as in- 
dicated by statistics given. 

There are undeveloped resources in the immense gypsum deposits, 
which are estimated to be over 125,000,000,000 tons; also jn uioun- 
taius of red granite and limestone beds. 

There are yet over 3,000,000 acres of vacant land subject i:-) home- 
stead, 

; " OKLAHOMA. 

The portion of country now called Oklahoma was included in the 
Louisiana purchase and embraces some 24,000,000 acres of as fertile 
and productive land as can be found in any country. 

Oklahoma is situated between the thirty-fourth and thirty-seventh 
parallels north latitude, and principally between 96 degrees, 30 min- 
utes, and 100 degrees west longitude. Kansas bounds it on the nortb, 
Indian Territory on the east, and Texas on the south and west. That 
portion of the Territory called Beaver County was once known as "No 
Man's Land," and while only 32 miles wide extends westward 160 
miles from the boundary of original Oklahoma, along the south lines 
of Kansas and Colorado, to New Mexico. 

By comparison Oklahoma is as large as the combined area of tbe 
States of Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and 
New Jersey. Tt is larger than either Indiana, Maine, or West Vir- 
ginia, and nearly the size of Obio. Its extreme length from north to 
south is 210 miles and extreme width from east to west 365 miles. 

According to the United States census of 1900 the population of 
Oklahoma was greater in proportion to area than that of 12 other 
States. Since the census was taken the population has nearly doubled 
in number. 

The climate of OklahonLa is similar to that of other States in this 
latitude, as northern Texas, fTejioeggee, and North Carolina. Portions 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OP OKLAHOMA. 5 

of the Territory have been opened to settlement on six different occa- 
sions, one county added from the State of Texas and one made from 
No Man's Land. The altitude ranges from 3,900 feet in Beaver 
County, in the extreme northwest, to 776 feet in Payne County, in 
the east. The country as a whole is well watered, there being many 
small streams and rivers, the general course of which is to the south- 
east. Certain portions of the Territory are heavily timbered, and some 
30 varieties of wood are found. 

The wonderful progress made by our citizens is due not only to 
their energy and activity, but to the great fertility of soil, favorable cli- 
mate, abundance of rainfall, and the resultant bounteous crops of fruits 
and cereals. Oklahoma's natural resources are many and varied, and 
as yet have been but little developed. In the space of fourteen years 
the wealth of the inhabitants has steadily increased, until at the present 
time it approximates $400,000,000. 

In intelligence, energy, industry, and general progressiveness our 
inhabitants are the equals of any other Commonwealth. Oklahoma, 
for fourteen years under a Territorial form of government, with her 
650,000 inhabitants, seven Territorial educational institutions, Indus'- 
trial achievements, railway mileage, growing cities, extensive commerce, 
and fertile soil, compares favorably with States that were admitted into 
the Union fifty years ago. 

OPENING OF OKLAHOMA TO SETTLEMENT. 

What is now known as Oklahoma was not all opened to the home- 
steader at one time, but on six different occasions portions were, by 
act of Congress, thrown open to settlement. The first lands to be oc- 
cupied were some 3,000,000 acres lying in the center of the Territory, 
opened April 22, 1889. The Sac and Fox and Pottawatomie reserva- 
tions, containing 1,282,434 acres, were opened in September, 1891. The 
Ch'^yenne and Arapahoe reservations, comprising 4,287,771 acres, were 
opened in April, 1892. The Cherokee Strip, containing 6,014,239 acres, 
was opened on September 16, 1893. The Kickapoo Reservation, com- 
prising 206,662 acres, was opened in 1895. The Kiowa, Comanche, 
Apache, and Wichita reservations, comprising about 4,000,000 acres, 
were opened on August 6, 1901. There was also added in 1890 that 
portion of country known as No Man's Land, containing 3,681,000 acres, 
and now called Beaver County. 

In 1896 Greer County was acquired from Texas by decision of the 
Supreme Court of the United States and added to the Territory of 
Oklahoma. 

STATEHOOD. 

Oklahoma is entitled to statehood — entitled to it now. There are in 
the Territory 650,000 intelligent American citizens who arc deprived of 
the right of self-government. A conservative estimate of the wealth of 



6 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

Oklahoma places it at $400,000,000. There are seven educational insti- 
tutions of higher learning under the control of the Territory, beside? 
numerous high schools and college under the control of religious de- 
nominations. Our people are in every respect entitled to that which is 
dear to the heart of every progressive American — the right to govern 
themselves. 

Against this proposition there can be no logical objection. Okla- 
homa has the intellect, the wealth, the moral force, the energy, the nat- 
ural resources, the development already achieved, and the promise of a 
splendid future sufficient to justly entitle her to careful consideration 
and Congressional action. No logical reason can be urged against her 
early admission into the sisterhood of States. 

POPULATION, 

Commencing back in 1890, when the population of Oklahoma was 
only 60,000, it is interesting to note the successive increase in biennial 
enumerations. From 1890 to 1892 the population more than doubled. 
The census taken during the following years, 1894 to 1896, showed a 
gain of from 60,000 to 80,000 people at each enumeration. The census 
of 1898 shows an addition of over 35,000, although at that time the 
attention of the American people was directed to affairs in Cuba and 
the Philippines. To this excitement may be attributed the temporary 
falling off of immigration. Since 1898 our growth has been most re- 
markable. It reached its maximum during the past two or three years, 
but, as is shown by the table arranged below, the increase during any 
two-year period has not been less than 35,000, while in one instance 
(1900-1902) it has attained more than 143,000. 

The enumeration this year is incomplete, owing somewhat to the 
change from county to township assessors when the former were half 
through with their assessment, and to the fact that annual enumeration 
is not mandatory and no penalty follows when not taken. The above- 
mentioned change was occasioned by an act of the recent legislature, 
which became operative from and after its passage. The gain in pop- 
ulation shown in those counties and townships from which returns have 
been received evidences a growth of about 25 per cent during the past 
year. Hence I feel that a conservative estimate of the present popula- 
tion of Oklahoma is 650,000. 

The immigration to the Teritory during the past five years is, no 
doubt, unprecedented in the history of any commonwealth covering a 
similar period of time. Immigration to Oklahoma has been largely 
from the States lying to the east and north. Indomitable energy has 
characterized our inhabitants from the start. Success in accomplish- 
ing things and acquiring a home, and not infrequently a competence in a 
few years, has encouraged immigration to Oklahoma. This element 
of "push and get there" is evidenced in our numerous successful man- 
ufacturing enterprises, our cities, as well as the high state of our agri- 
cultural development. 



ii^c..^.f:. 




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RASPBERRY BUSH FROM THE FARM OF J. E. FREEMAN. SECY. LOGAN 
CO. HORTICULTURAL. SOCIETY. 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. < 

The number of foreign born in the Territory is exceedingly small, 
being not over 5 per cent. The percentage of illiteracy is still less, but 
this need not be surprising when it is stated that we have 180,000 en- 
rolled school children, and the money to maintain our common schools 
and higher educational institutions fully eight months in the year. 

GROWTH IN POPULATION. 



Year 


Census 


Growth 


Per cent of 
gain over 
preceding 
enumera- 
tion 


J89 


60,416 
133,100 
212,635 
275,587 
311,400 
398,331 
541.480 






1892 


72,684 
79,535 
62,952 
35,813 
88,931 
143,149 


*120 


1894 . . 


*60 


1896 - 


*30 


1898 


*13 


1900 


*28 


1902 


*36 







* Nearly. 

The atmosphere of hospitality and good-fellowship that pervades 
our Commonwealth is peculiarly western. It is most noticeable to the 
"stranger, and induces a cordiality of feeling and results in a unanimity 
of purpose where the good of all is concerned, such as the preparation 
and upbuilding of a new State. Because of this spirit and owing to 
the friendships which are its outgrowth, enterprises of considerable 
magnitude have been fostered, and institutions which speak well for the 
intellectuality of our future State have developed and prospered. 

The character of our citizenship is of the highest, and crime and 
lawlessness, as evidenced by the dockets of our courts, is much less than 
in many of our older sister States. 



TAXABLE PROPERTY. 



The sum of $84,134,472 is returned by the assessors for the year 
1903. This represents a gain of $11,457,049 over last year's assessment. 

When the fact is taken into consideration that property is assessed 
at not over one-fourth its actual value, and often some of it is overlooked 
entirely, these figures become all the more gratifying. The actual value 
of our taxable property is not far short of $400,000,000 to-day. 

The following table of comparison shows the steady growth of values 
of certain classes of property during the past three years. 



Farm lands 

Town property 

Railroads 

Monej-s and credit 
Other property..... 



$17,279,809 

8,062,567 

4,538,67) 

2,552.932 

28,031,013 



1902 



$22,614,650 

11,629.199 

6,339,462 

3,068,273 

29,025,839 



1903 



$27,204,160 

14,397.329 

7,851,187 

3,612,131 

31,069,665 



The Territorial tax levy being 6 1-4 mill will produce the Bum of 
$525,839. This is a decrease of $41,111.90 over 1902. 



8 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



Below is given a comparative table of the assessment of each of the 
counties for the past four years. 

TAXABI,E VAl,UATION FOR FOUR YEARS PAST. 



Beaver 

Blaine 

Caddo , 

Canadian 

Cleveland 

Comanche 

Custer 

Day 

Dewey 

Garfield 

Grant 

Greer 

Kay 

Kingfisher 

Kiowa 

Ivincoln 

lyOgan 

Noble 

Olclahoma 

Pawnee 

Payne 

Pottawatomie.. 

Roger Mills 

Washita 

Woods 

Woodward 



Total 

Kaw Reservatiion 

Osage Reservation. 



,573,563 
633,775 



501,056 
844,744 



,278,194 
435,012 
674,200 
,825,294 
,864.393 
,049,585 
647,044 
576,510 



,967,596 
,432,980 
,647,120 
,386,337 
,920,093 
,277,618 
,933,734 
738,150 
,124.241 
,030,963 
,386,469 



Jl,614,072 
996,096 



4,971,229 
2,177,522 



1,651,724 
477,813 
810,725 
3,105.801 
2,725,624 
3,363,101 
3,404,931 
3,261,709 



2,626,580 
4,690,417 
2,029,942 
4,738,133 
1,674,296 
8,215,641 
2,951,073 
913,713 
1,433,309 
4,848,204 
2,079.114 



60,464,696 



$2,006,128 
1,689,512 
1,679,335 
8,274,929 
2,137,309 
1,735,739 

. 2,025,795 
407,514 
826,821) 
3,759,453 
8.802,209 
3,853,541 
3,775,955 
3,448,792 
l,4.il,270 
3,217,845 
4,928,450 
2,290,011 
5,683,067 
1,652,590 
3,214,212 
8,366 895 
1,833,691 
1,821,742 
6,553,761 
2,279,910 



71,707,918 
211,738 
757,767 



72,677,423 



$1,843,148 
2,161,518 
2,541,944 
3,341,445 
2,320,879 
4,088,702 
2,478,304 
519,756 
979,067 
4,545,038 
3,423,856 
4,165,534 
4,414,011 
3,369,469 
2,275,211 
3.611.487 
4,811,079 
2,782,807 
7,062,444 
2,742,974 
3,473,888 
3,670,103 
1,514,375 
2.269,957 
6,831.022 
2,801,844 



84,134,472 



Note — The assessment of 1908 in the Kaw, Ponca, and Osage reservations has been appor- 
tioned among the counties of Kay, Noble, and Pawnee, and is included in the above valuations 
of said counties. 

TAXES. 

Taxes in Oklahoma are not high. This year the Territorial board 
of equalization has lowered the levy from that of the two preceding 
years. The levy for 1903 is 6 1-4 mills. The bond interest fund has so 
increased, as the result of last year's levy, as to give assurance that the 
entire sum of $48,000 will be in the treasury by the end of the present 
year. Over four-fifths of this sum is now in the hands of the treas- 
urer, and the Territory will soon have paid the first and only bonds it 
has ever issued. 

TERRITORIAL INDEBTEDNESS. 



The Territorial indebtedness on June 30, 1903, as shown by the re- 
port of the Territorial treasurer, was $461,766.43 

To offset the bonds issued for educational purposes some years ago, 
amounting to $48,000, there is now in the bond interest fund the sum 
of $43,738. Thus it will be observed that the total indebtedness of the 
Territory has decreased during the past year. 



EEPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



SETTLEMENT OF LANDS. 

The niunber of acres appropriated by the homesteader during the 
past year was considerably less than that of some former years. This 
may be acounted for by the fact that much of the land unappropriated 
in Beaver and Woodward counties, where the bulk of vacant land is lo- 
cated, is not as suitable for agriculture as stock raising. They are what 
is termed grass lands, and are most valuable for grazing, being watered 
by numerous rivers, creeks, and running springs. The altitude is higher 
than that of Dewey, Day or Eoger Mills, where considerable land is yet 
unoccupied. Occasional tracts of good farming land can yet be found. 
While this land has in the past been mostly used by the cattlemen, dur- 
ing the past three or four years the people of the Territory have been 
so prosperous and have raised such immense crops, that the vacant land 
is now being settled up and the cattlemen driven to other parts. 

The climate is mild in winter and hot in summer, yet the heat of 
summer is tempered and most of the days made delightful by a steady 
Gulf breeze. The "nights are cool and refreshing. 

Eailroads are rapidly pushing forward into these newer counties, 
and will soon furnish transportation for the newcomer and his neces- 
sary supplies, and also bring him in touch with the best markets of the 
country for his products. 

The following table indicates the number of acres filed on during 
the past year, in the respective counties, and the amount of land still 
vacant : 



COUNTT. 


Filed on 

during 

year 


Still 
vacant 


County 


Filed on 
during 
year 


Still 
vacant 


Beaver 


Acres 
293 699 
1,589 


Acres 

2,738.709 

895 

2,867 

882 

14,610 

1,703 

109,402 

7,000 


Greer 


Acres 

120,000 

872 

3,226 

86,882 

400 

67,273 

234,349 

916.036 


Acres 
34,000 




Kingfisher 

Kiowa 

Roger Mills 




Caddo 


5,081 


Canadian 




16,218 




3,004 

974 

92,198 

12 000 

70 


Washita 

Woods 

Woodward 

Total 




Custer 


43,916 


Day 


114,985 






Grant 


3,089,768 



PUBLIC LANDS. 

The Government land of the Territory is divided into eight districts, 
viz., Alva, El Eeno, Guthrie, Lawton, Kingfisher, Mangum, Oklahoma 
City and Woodward, the registers and receivers of which have kindly 
furnished me with the following statistics concerning their respective 
districts : 

ALVA. 

Woods County alone comprises this district. 

Total area of land in district 1,732,000 

Number acres vacant 43,916 

Number acres Saline Reservation 17,26^ 

Number acres filed on during year 67,273 

Number homestead entries made during year 509 



10 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



EL RENO. 



This district is composed of the public lands in six counties. Total 
area of district is 3,781,000 acres. 



County 


Unappro- 
priated 


Reserved 


Appropri- 
ated 


Total area 


Blaine 


Acres 

22 

2,867 

882 

37 

3,010 


Acres 

■27",547" 

26,080 


Acres 

71,978 
948,586 
257,038 
339,963 
434,390 
645,440 


Acres 

72,000 


Caddo 


979,000 


Canadian 


284,000 


Custer 


340,000 


Kiowa 


21, '600 
1,560 


459,000 


Washita 


647,000 








Total 


6,818 


76,787 


2,697,395 


2,781,000 







The character of the unoccupied land in the above counties is either 
mountainous or sandy. 



GUTHRIE. 



In the seven counties which compose this district there are but 90 
acres of vacant land, and all figures remain the same as last year. 



County 


Area un- 

appopri- 

ated 


Area re- 
served 


Area Ap- 
propriated 


Total area 


Kay 


Acres 


Acres 
46,579 
56,622 
16,894 
30,345 
3,840 
30,949 
66,836 


Acres 
425,421 
333,346 
343,106 
468,655 
88,160 
301,993 
417,164 


Acres 

472,000 


I<incoln . . . 


32 


390,000 


Logan 


360,000 


Noble 




499,000 


Oklahoma 

Pawnee 


58 


92,000 
383,000 


Payne 


484,000 








Total 


90 


252,065 


2,377,845 


2,630,000 



KINGFISHER. 



This district is next to the largest in size, and embraces lands in 
eleven counties. Total area of land surface in district, 4,421,000 acres. 



County 


Area un- 
appropri- 
ated 


Area ap- 

proDri- 

ated 


Area re- 
served 


Total area 


Blaine 


Acres 
373 


Acres 

290,687 
100,280 
165,274 
521,680 
518,198 
596,665 
565,538 
498,760 
105,600 
21,720 
114,622 


Acres 

228,040 
38,720 
43,060 

108 320 
38.400 
75,335 
74,462 
74,240 
6,400 
1,280 
12,160 


Acres 
519,000 


Canadian 


139,000 


Cu-ter _ 


1,066 

7,000 

109,402 


310,000 


Dewey 


637,000 


Day _ 

Grant 


666,000 
672,000 


Garfield 




640,000 


Kingfisher 




568,000 


lyOgan . 




112,000 


Oklahoma 




23,000 


Roger Mills _ 


8,218 


135,000 


Total 


126,059 


3,598,924 


700,417 


4,421,000 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



11 



LAWTON. 



There are 2,120,000 acres embraced in this district, which is com- 
posed of Comanche County and a portion of Kiowa. 



County 


Area un- 
appropri- 
ated 


Area ap- 
propri- 
ated 


Area re- 
served 


Total area 


Comanche 


Acres 
14,610 
2,071 


Acres 

1,238,670 
271,609 


Acres 
591,720 
1,320 


Acres 
1.845,000 


Kiowa 


275,000 


Total 


16,681 


1,510,279 


503.040 


3,120,000 







There was cancelled or relinquished in Comanche County, 128,157 
acres. There was cancelled or relinquished in Kiowa County, 44,860 
acres. Total land filed on during year ending June 30, 1903, 176,604 
acres. Number of homestead entries, 1,223. 

MANGUM. 

There are but two counties in this district, which covers an area 
of 2,133,575 acres. 



County 


Area 
vacant 


Filed on 

during 

year 1903 


Total area 


Area 
can- 
celled 


Greer 

Roger Mills 


Acres 

34,000 
8,000 


Acres 

120,000 
80.000 


Acres 

1,511,575 
622.000 


Acres, 
75,000 
60,000 


Total 


42,000 


200,000 


2,133,575 


135,000 







The above is given in round numbers. There were about 550 final 
proofs made during the year, and about the same number of homesteads 
commuted to cash. The receipts of the office amounted to over $76,000. 



OKLAHOMA CITY. 



This district has since been consolidated with the Guthrie district. 

There is no vacant land in this district, it being composed of five 
of the older counties. Total area is 1,581,630 acres. 



County 


Area 
reserved 


Area ap- 
propriated 


Total area 


Canadian 


Acres 

8,375 
80,000 

118,000 
32,000 

273,380 


Acres 

147,255 
268.000 
111,000 
316,000 
227,620 


Acres 

155,630 


Cleveland „ 


348,000 


Lincoln 

Oklahoma 


229,000 
348,000 


Pottawatomie 


501,000 






Total .. 


511,755 


1.069,875 


1,581 630 







12 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



WOODWARD. 



This is the largest land district, comprising 5,805,000 acres, and 
covers two counties. 



County 


Total va- 
cant land 


Total area 
of appro- 
priated 
lands 


Total area 

of laud 
surface of 
the county 


Character of unappropriated 
lands 


Beaver 

Woodward 


Acres 

2,738,709 
114,985 


Acres 

942,291 
2,007,335 


Acres 

3,681,0U0 
2,124,000 


[• Grazing and farming lands 







During the past year the total area filed on in Beaver County was 
328,711 acres, and in Woodward County 364,956 acres. Total number 
of entries for the year in the two counties, 4,390. 



SCHOOL AND OTHER RESERVED LANDS. 

The total amount of land reserved for the future State of Oklaho- 
ma under the provisions of the various acts opening the portions of 
Oklahoma to settlement aggregates 2,055,000 acres, practically all of 
which is leased for agricultural and grazing purposes, and the income 
from same for the year 1903 will amount to probably $375,000, or an 
average of over $1,000 a day. 

When the privilege of renting the school land was first granted to 
the Territory it was considered a matter of little moment, but the car- 
ing and looking after these lands, providing for their leasing, and the 
collection of the rentals has now come to be one of the most important 
functions of the Territorial government. The responsibility of dir- 
ecting the carrying on of this work imposed by Congress upon the gov- 
ernor, secretary and superintendent of public instruction, has become 
quite a burden when added to their other official duties, and requires 
much time and attention. The school-land department as administered 
by a secretary working under the direction of the board, is now one of 
the most important parts of the Territorial government, handling 
large sums of money, dealing with nearly 8,000 leases, and entailing 
constant supervision and watchfulness to prevent the abuse of the lands 
and the robbing of the future State by the illegal cutting of timber, 
quarrying of stone, and removing of mineral and other valuable deposits. 

While in a few instances lands have been leased for townsite and 
manufacturing purposes, the board has maintained as a rule that the 
intent was to lease these lands only for agricultural and grazing pur- 
poses, and have insisted that the timber, stone, clay, cement, and min- 
eral was a part of the land, and consequently intended to be reserved 
for the future State of Oklahoma and not subject to removal at this 
time. 

The present system of leasing the land for a term of three years, 
with the privilege of renewal for another and succeeding terms at the 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 13 

■appraised rental, gives general satisfaction. In the past there has been 
some difficulty in securing an equitable and uniform appraisement in 
all parts of the Territory, so it has been decided for this year to have 
a force of viewers go upon the lands whereon the lease is about to ex- 
pire, obtain a complete description of same, and file it with the depart- 
partment, together with a plat of the land. These descriptions and 
plats will be taken up and passed upon by a board of five practical far- 
mers and business men, to be selected by the board for leasing school 
lands, and they will classify the lands and fix the rentals for the entire 
Territory. The care a man takes of his land and the manner in which 
he farms it will be taken into consideration in fixing the rental, and it 
is believed that this will result in satisfying all reasonable objections 
that may have been raised to any of the rentals in the past. 

Owing to a tendency to speculate in these lands, the board has 
amended its rules to prevent the hypothecating of leases as security for 
loans and the transferring of same in blank, and has required that in 
the future all leases and transfers shall be executed before a notary pub- 
lic or other officer empowered to take acknowledgments in the same 
njanner as required for a transfer of real estate. 

Lessees residing within the Territory will be allowed to rent for a 
single season such portion of their land as is deemed advisable by the 
board, upon application. 

The question of timber cutting has always been a troublesome one, 
but there has been less of it the last year than heretofore, owing to 
the policy of careful supervision of all the timber lands. In every case 
where any timber is cut lessees are compelled to pay full value for same, 
and no land is allowed to be cleared except upon application to the 
board and a showing that it is desirable to remove the timber in order 
to put the land under cultivation, and that the land would be more val- 
uable when so cultivated. Even when permit is given to clear timber 
land for cultivation the lessee is required to pay for all timber taken off, 
and every application is thoroughly investigated by a special agent of 
the department. There has been less trouble in relation to the cutting 
of walnut and other valuable timber the past year, but it requires con- 
stant watching over and caring for the timber lands to prevent this, and 
even then some of the valauble trees will occasionally be cut and the 
logs stolen. Whenever a person not a lessee of school land has entered 
upon the land and cut any timber, action has been brought against him 
in the courts, and the aid of the Government has been asked in carrving 
these prosecutions to a succcessful termination. 

The unprecedented building of railways in the Territory in the last 
year has in many cases damage*^, school land to a considerable extent, 
but on the other hand the development of the country, the opening of 
markets contiguous to the land, and the general rise in values brought 
about has resulted in benefit much greater than the damage. In every 
case where railways cross or touch upon school land they have been com- 
pelled to comply with the provisions of the Territorial statute relating 



14 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

to "eminent domain/' and to pay into the permanent fund in the treas- 
ury the damages assessed. This fund now aggregates the sum of 
$19,601.28. 

The rapid development of the western portion of the Territory has 
resulted in the dividing up of the leases originally made there for graz- 
ing purposes, into smaller tracts. Whenever this is done the rental has 
been fixed on the basis of agricultural land, and the revenue for the 
Territory is constantly growing larger in the west. 

The legislature at its session the past winter provided for a special 
distribution from the school-land fund to the school children of the new 
counties who were missed in the distribution last year, owing to a tech- 
nical failure to comply with the law. The amount so distributed aggre- 
gated $36,363.23, which will cut down the per capita distribution to be 
made to the entire Territory this month considerably, but it is a matter 
of justice that this should be done, and there is no cause for complaint 
from the other districts who had the benefit of the distribution of the 
large cash rental collected from these new counties last year. 

I present herewith statement of the receipts for the past year,, 
and for every year since the leasing of the lands began. 

NET PROCEEDS FROM LEASING LANDS. 
Fiscal year ending June 30 — 

1891 $4,536.82 

1892 21,346.13 

1893 19,164.67 

1894 45,989.98 

1895 88,627.97 

1896 71,740.68 

1897 98,467.81 

1898 173.442.83 

1899 133,047.19 

1900 177,190.24 

1901 213„203.67 

1902 435,915.85 

1903 ' 322,880.54 

Total 1,805,654.38 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The public schools have enjoyed a year of unexampled prosperity. 
Many new and more commodious schoolhouses have been erected, more 
thorough equipment provided, the curriculum systematised, mainte- 
nance was more liberal, teachers more efficient, the attendance more 
prompt and regular, and a healthier educational spirit developed. 

The last annual reports of the counties show that there are 2.192 
schoolhouses in Oklahoma, valued at $1,347,257.15. The 303 new 
school-houses erected the current year cost $190,861.44. The same 
reports show 2,857 organized school districts in which 2,290 schools were 
taught. 

The sources of income for the common schools are three: Direct 





J 



^' *^\ ^LLwlj'^ES l^ 




O 

u 
< 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 15 

district tax, county tax, and the rent from the leasing of the school lands. 
During the last biennium this office apportioned from the income of 
leasing school lands $417,754.58, or $3.04 per capita. 

The total expenditures for teachers' salaries, sites, building, rents, 
repairs, library, and apparatus was $1,116,230.77. 

The enumeration of children of school age was 178,964, of which 
131,959 were enrolled in the public schools. The salaries paid teach- 
ers for the year ending June 30, 1902, were as follows : For first grade, 
$45; for second grade, $37; for third grade, $32. The salaries for the 
year ending June 30, 1903, are higher by 10 per cent. The prospects 
for the coming year promise an increase of 20 per cent over those of 
1903. 

The course of study for common schools was introduced in 1896. 
In the eight 3^ears 2,973 students have graduated. In 1903 there were 
1, 162 common school graduates. 

The 3'ear 1902 was the first in the Territory that every county held 
a normal institute. These institutes encourage the teachers and greatly 
assist in equipping them for their important work. The institutes are 
in session from two to six weeks. In addition to the regular instruc- 
tion formerly given, much is gained by social contact and the free ex- 
change of ideas. The institute stimulates and encourages to more thor- 
ough equipment and better effort, and develops a splendid professional 
spirit. 

The Territorial county, and district teachers' associations are of 
great value. During the year 1902 the various county superintendents 
attended 162 such meetings. The official work of the county superin- 
tendents shows 2.098 schools visited in 1902 and 5,209 consultations 
with school boards. The various offices were kept open 5,832 days. The 
majority of the superintendents keep their records in good condition, 
and perform their labors with not only zeal and enthusiasm, but also 
with a spirit consecrated to the work. 

The Territorial board of education dictates the educational policy 
and controls to a greater or less extent the educational system. This 
work is done gratuitously and well. During the biennium just closing 
the board held 25 meetings and has prepared questions for 25 teachers* 
examinations. It has revised the plans of examinations for county, city. 
Territorial, and normal institute certificates, and also the course of study 
for normal institutes and for common school, and has many plans in 
view for the future improvement of, the school system. 

The union graded school and county high school laws have not been 
taken advantage of generally. There are now organizing in "Washita, 
Logan and Greer counties union graded schools, and we expect much 
from them. 

The proposition to vote a county high school has not met with favor 
where tried except in Logan County. In Kay, Cleveland, and Garfield 
counties the proposition was defeated. The defeat, however, was oc- 
casioned by local conditions. In Logan County, at the last general elec- 



16 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

tion, the proposition carried with about 600 majority. Within a year 
Logan Comity will have established and running a county high school 
at Guthrie. 

The separate school law is working very satisfactory. Last year 
there was some misunderstanding of the law and a misinterpretation 
of its provisions. It takes some time for a law to become operative. 
This year the county superintendents' reports show the erection of many 
separate school buildings and the creation of equal school facilities for 
both races. Better feeling prevails more generally than ever before in 
the history of the Territory. 

The statute enacted by the legislature of 1901, returning 15 per cent 
of the rentals received from the leasing of the indemnity school lands 
to the districts in which they are situated, while a great burden upon 
the Territorial treasurer, has been a great relief to these people and has 
materially benefited the schools. 

In conclusion, allow me to state that I ])elieve that our general edu- 
cational system is the best 3'et known to man. Our people have very 
great cause for encouragement. The public school is the university of 
the masses. Upon it depends the education of the future man, the cit- 
izen. That our people realize its immense importance is plainly de- 
monstrated by their generous financial support and personal interest in 
this institution. So long as the public school accomplishes its purpose, 
60 long will the Territory continue to grow. 

The school is not merely a preparation for life, "it is life itself." 
It developes the intellect, inspires higher ideals, greater ambitions, and 
loftier conceptions of life, thus building character and fitting individuals 
for complete living. 

HIGHER INSTITUTIONS OF LEARNING. 

There are seven institutions of learning under Territorial supervis- 
ion, viz: The University of Oklahoma, located at Norman; the Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College at Stillwater; Edmond Normal; North- 
western Normal at Alva; Southwestern Normal at Weatherford; the 
Colored Agricultural and Normal at Langston, and the University Pre- 
paratory School at Tonkawa. Oklahomans are justly proud of the ex- 
cellent facilities with which they are enabled to educate the youth of the 
Territory. Each of these institutions is well equipped in every way for 
teaching by the most modern and approved methods. The total enroll- 
ment during the past year was 2,818. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA. 

The university is founded by authority of an act of the legislature 
of the Territory of Oklahoma entitled "An act to locate and establish 
the University of Oklahoma." The act provides that when $10,000 and 
40 acres of land should be donated to the Territory by the city of Nor- 
man, the institution should be located at that place. These require- 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 17 

ments having been met, the university was established at Norman in 
1892. 

Location. — Norman, the county seat of Cleveland County, is a grow- 
ing town of 3,500 inhabitants. It is situated 18 miles south of Okla- 
homa City, on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Eailroad, on high 
ground sloping to the Canadian Eiver. It is preeminently healthful. 
The citizens are from all parts of the United States and are united in 
their hearty sympathy with the work of the university. 

Grounds. — The university campus comprises 60 acres, 20 of which, 
lying just east of the old campus, were lately donated to the university 
by the citizens of Norman. It lies at a good elevation 1 mile south of 
the business portion of town. The campus and approaching boulevard 
have been- set out in trees, which have already obtained a size to render 
the spot one of the most pleasing in Oklahoma. 

BuUdings. — By the opening of the second semester, February 8, 
1904, the university will have seven buildings ready for use. 

' University Hall. — By an act of the legislature approved March 8, 
1901, the university was granted the income for two years from the 
tax of seven-tenths of a mill on the dollar on all taxable property of the 
Territory; the amount to be spent, however, not to exceed $90,000. As 
a result of that appropriation. University Hall was built. It is built 
of buff brick with terra-cotta trimmings and basement of planed lime- 
stone, in the renaissance style of architecture. It contains ample office 
room for the president, secretary, registrar, and regents, together with 
suites of recitation rooms and private offices, society halls, etc. The 
west wing as planned was not built under the present appropriation. 
The formal entrance into University Hall took place on March 15, 1903. 

Science Hall. — Work on this building has been delaj^ed by the failure 
of the first contractors to complete their bond. At a meeting of the 
board of regents held in July the contract was relet to a reliable con- 
tractor and the work is now being pushed forward rapidly. The build- 
ing is to be ready for use by February, 1904. It is Romanesque in de- 
sign, and will be built of gray brick with limestone trimmings. It will 
be 64 by 125 feet, with a basement and two floors. The department of 
chemistry will occupy the basement, the departmenet of biology the 
first floor, and the department of geology the second floor. 

Carnegie Library. — The university has lately received from Mr. 
Carnegie a gift of $30,000, to be used in erecting a library building. 
Provisional plans for the building were accepted by the board of regents 
in July, and they are now being matured by the architect. 

Heating Plant. — In accordance with the bill above refeered to, a 
suitable heating plant has been put in at a cost of about $10,000. 

Gymnasium. — This building is now enclosed and will be ready for use 



18 REPORT OP THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

by the opening of school, September 15. It is 100 by 55 feet. The large 
apparatus room is 40 by 80. In front of it, facing the athletic field on 
the east, are the directors' offices, each 15 by 20 feet, with a 5-foot hall 
between. On the south is the locker room, 52 by 15. On the southwest 
are the bath rooms, a shower bath, 12 by 15, and a tub bath, 11 by 15. 

Anatomical J ah oratory. — The anatomical laboratory occupies a sepa- 
rate building, designed and constructed for the purpose. It contains the 
dissecting room, a class room and library, and a workroom for the prep- 
aration and storage of material. It is a frame building 50 by 24. 

Engineering building. — This building is 80 by 46, frame, one story, 
located adjacent to the heating and power plant. At present it is oc- 
cupied by the chemical, biological, and geological laboratories, which 
will be removed to Science Hall as soon as it is completed. 

Organization. — The university organization consists of the following 
schools: College of arts and sciences, school of pharmacy, preparatory 
course in medicine, preparatory school, school of fine arts. 

The college of arts and sciences embraces an undergraduate course, 
in the main elective ; a combined course in collegiate and medical studies ; 
combined courses in collegiate and engineering studies: {a) civil engin- 
eering, (&) mining engineering. 

The school of prarmacy covers two years' work and leads to the degree 
of pharmaceutical chemist. 

The medical course includes the first two years' work. 

The preparatory school covers a three years' course, leading to the 
freshman class. 

The school of fine arts embraces {a) a preparatory course in vocal and 
instrumental music, (&) an advanced course in music. 

Support. — The university is supported by appropriations made by the 
legislature of the Territory of Oklahoma and by the income from certain 
lands reserved for university, normal school and agricultural school 
purposes, the aggregate from all sources being about $40,000 per annum. 

Faculty. — The faculty consists of 33 members. The instructors are 
specialists in their work, chosen from such schools as Harvard, Prince- 
ton, Columbia, Johns Hopkins, etc. At the annual meeting of the board 
of regents, held in June, an instructor in economics, an instructor in 
mathematics, and an assistant in English were added. There are no 
student teachers. 

THE UNIVERSITY PREPARATORY SCHOOL. 

The university preparatory school for Oklahoma was created by the 
legislature of 1901 and was located at Tonkawa, a rapidly growing town 
of 1,500 in the Salt Fork Valley. The town of Tonkawa donated 20 
acres of land for a school site. The building, a brick and stone structure 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. li:* 

5-i by 96, having four floors, was erected and equipped just in time for 
the opening of the school on the scheduled date, September 8, 1902, at 
which time the school opened with a faculty of 7 instructors and an en- 
rollment of 227 students. The building was erected and the school main- 
tained the first year by means of a tax on one-fifth mill on all the taxable 
property of Oklahoma. The legislature of 1893 changed the method of 
support and gave the institution, annually for two years, a direct appropri- 
ation of $12,000 and one-seventh of the rentals from section 13, reserved 
for higher education by Presidential proclamation of 1893, and subse- 
quent similar proclamations. 

During the year four additional instructors were added, and the en- 
rollment increased to 315 students. At the close of the year the board 
of regents added three more instructors, thus giving the school a faculty 
of 14 teachers for the opening of the second year. The faculty are men 
and women of special fitness, chosen on account of their training, en- 
ergy, and successful experience as teachers in the public schools of the 
North and West. 

Early in the spring of 1903 the grounds were accurately surveyed 
and the campus platted, and over 1,600 trees (elms, locusts, maples, North 
Carolina poplars, and evergreens) were set out and are in a thriving con- 
dition. During the summer vacation (1903) the fourth floor of the 
building was finished and equipped, at a cost of about $1,000, for music 
and society halls. 

There were no regular graduates at the close of the year, but a class 
of 11 young men and women completed courses in the commercial de- 
partment. 

The purpose of the University Preparatory School is, primarily, to 
prepare young men and women for freshman standing in the Territorial 
University at Norman. The school aims to meet the wants and needs 
of all classes of secondary students. That this may be accomplished, 
the school is organized as follows : 

(1) The regular preparatory school with three courses of study of 
three years each, the latin, the modern languages, and the scientific. 

(2) The school of commerce, with two courses of one year each. 

(3) The school of music, offering courses in piano, voice, violin, man- 
dolin, guitar, and reed and valve instruments. 

(4) The school of oratory and physical culture, providing a course of 
two years. 

(5) The school of art, which offers a two year course. 

(6) A year of subpreparatory work in the common branches for those 
who are not qualified to take up the regular first year work. 

(7) A teachers' review course during the spring term. 

Tuition is free in all departments, the only restriction being that in 
order to obtain free instruction in music students must take at least 
three rr^gular studies. 



20 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

THE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE. 

The Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College was established 
and located at Siillv/afer by an act of the Territorial legislatnrp, which 
took effect December 25, 1890, accepting the provisions of the Federal 
statutes in aid of colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the me- 
chanic arts. The town of Stillwater was requited to vote bond^ in the 
sum of $10,000, and to provide not less than 80 acres of land. The 
bonds were voted and 200 acres of land provided. 

The past year has been one of satisfactory growth and development. 
0\\ing to the advancing of the age limit of entrance to the preparatory 
departments to 16 years of age, and to more stringent requirements fcr 
entrance to the collegiate department, the attendance was not materially 
greater than during the preceding year — the enrollment standing at 
435. The departments of mechanical engineering, of domestic econ- 
omy, and of botany and entomology were able to move into new and 
commodious quarters, greatly contributing to the effectiveness of the 
work. For the first time in the history of the institution, also, adequate 
auditorium and chapel room has been provided. ' Twenty-three students 
— twelve young men and eleven young women — received the degree of 
bachelor of science. This is the largest class graduated to this time 
Seven of these students graduated in the general science and literature 
course, ten in the chemistry course, and six in the mechanical engineer- 
ing course. 

New features of importance have been determined upon. A two 
years' course in agriculture and domestic science has' been established, 
to be known as the school of agriculture and domestic economy. It 
purposes to give to young men such theoretical and practical instruction 
in agriculture, horticulture, and animal husbandry as every man on the 
farm should have; and to young women, theoretical and practical train- 
ing in cooking, sewing, sanitation, hygiene, and home management. In 
connection with this work instruction in the common school branches is 
given to those who desire or need it. This course begins October 15 and 
closes March 15 of each year, to accommodate those who are doing work 
on the farm. It does not in any manner take the place of the regular 
agricultural course or the short courses in agriculture and mechanic arts. 

The preparatory department will be discontinued, except as work in 
the common school branches will be given in the school of agriculture 
and domestic science. A subfreshman class has been instituted, taking 
largely the work heretofore given in the freshman class. This is re- 
garded as a collegiate class under the laws of the Territory, and extends 
the regular course over five years. It will result in noticeably raising 
the standard of work in the college. 

The resources of the college "now amount to about $59,500 per year. 
Of this $37,500 comes from the government to the college and experi- 
ment station (Morrill and Hatch funds, respectively), and the greater 
portion of the remainder from the Territory. Of the government fund 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMxV. ' 21 

of $37,500 above mentioned, however, $15,000 (the Hatch fund), goes 
exclusively to the experiment station, and is used solely for purposes 
of experimentation and the publication of results. This leaves about 
$44,500 per year applicable to purposes of maintainance, equipment and 
instruction. The equipment for instruction show a valuation of about 
$80,000, and the equipment of the building about $100,000. 

Three regular courses, each leading to the degree of bachelor of sci- 
ence, are given — the general science course, the agricultural course and the 
mechanical engineering course. In the course first mentioned oppor- 
tunity is given for specialization in chosen sciences. Special courses are 
given in stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping, and printing, and a 
special short course (eight weeks) is given during the winter term in ag- 
riculture and mechanic arts. During the last winter a similar short 
course was given in domestic economy, for which there were more appli- 
cants than could be accommodated. 

The agricultural experiment station is connected with this institution 
and a department of it. While its work, as above stated, is devoted solely 
to experimentation and the publication of results, incidently it is a val- 
uable scource of illustration, and affords a stimulus to students in every 
branch of science. Its bulletins now go to 20,000 farmers of Oklahoma 
and Indian Territory. 

Tuition is free, except to students outside of Oklahoma and Indian 
Territory. An incidental fee of $1 per term is charged. Text-books 
cost from $3 to $4 per term. Board with room in private families can 
be obtained from $2.50 to $3.50 per week. Furnished rooms from $3 
to $6 per month. A considerable number of the students board in 
students' clubs, thus reducing expenses in that line $2 to $2.25 per week. 
Very many of the students are practically self-supporting, making their 
way by work done during the summer vacation and by labor during 
the academic year in town, about the college, and in connection with 
the operations of the college farm. 

The athletic interests of the college were favorably affected during 
the past year by the fitting up of a comfortable gymnasium in the 
basement of the library building. 

THE TERRITORIAL NORMAL SCHOOL. 

The iSTormal School of Oklahoma was located and established at 
Edmond by legislative enactment in 1890, upon the conditions — which 
were promptly met — that Oklahoma county donate $5,000 in bonds 
and the town of Edmond donate 40 acres of land for a school site. 
Two thousand dollars additional in bonds was donated by the town. 

Edmond is a thriving town of about 2.000 inhabitants, situated about 
midway between Guthrie and Oklahoma City, on the highest point on 
the Santa Fe Eailway, and is preeminently distinguished for its health- 
fuln-^ss and for the beauty of its surroundings. It is distinctively a 



22 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

college town, its citizens having established homes here largely because 
the town is free from many of the vices commonly prevalent in county- 
seat towns. 

The main building of the normal school, built of brick, was com- 
pleted in 1893; the wings, built of stone, were erected in 1894 and 1895. 
The entire building contains fifteen classrooms and an assembly hall of 
500 seating capacity. The unprecedented growth of the institution in 
the two years just past has made additional room imperative. Accord- 
ingly, the legislative assembly made an appropriation of $40,000 for the 
erection of a new building which is now under construction. This build- 
ing will contain an assembly hall of 800 seating capacity, offices, cloak- 
rooms, library and reading rooms, and physical laboratories, together with 
fourteen recitation rooms. The plans of the building are in accordance 
the highest attainments possible in modern educational facilities. 

In addition to the new building mentioned above, a power house and 
central heating building wall be erected this summer. Both the old and 
the new normal school building will be supplied with heat and water 
from the central building. Such changes will be made in the old build- 
ing as to render possible its equipment with the most improved modem 
conveniences and appliances. 

The library and the reading room are furnished with the best books 
and current magazines that the market affords. These are open to all 
students every day except Sunday. The laboratories — Chemical, phys- 
ical, psychological, and biological — are well supplied with modern ap- 
pliances for scientific experimentation and investigation. A new tele- 
scope has been added recently to the department of astronomy. 

The normal school is maintained by a Territorial tax levy and a sev- 
enth part of the rentals obtained from sections numbered 13 in the so- 
called Cherokee Outlet, and similar sections in the Kiowa, Comanche, 
Apache, and Wichita lands opened to settlement on August 6, 1901. 

The special function of the normal school is to prepare young men 
and young women for the work of teaching. This result is accomplished, 
first, through thorough and liberal academic work; seco;id, through the 
study of the child ; third, through studying the philosophy of teaching, 
and, fourth, through practice and training in the model department. 

The diploma given to the student upon graduation is a five-year Ter- 
ritorial certificate and is renewable by the Territorial superintendent of 
public instruction upon evidence of satisfactory work done in teaching. 
The diploma is therefore practically a life certificate. 

Eighty-eight students have within the past eight years completed the 
normal-school course of study and hundreds of others are now 
teaching in the Territory who have received a partial training in this 
school. About one-half the students who attended this institution the 
past year expect to teach in some of the schools of the Territorv next 
year. More than 300 schools will be directly benefitted, therefore, 
through the efforts of the normal school the past year. It will be seen 




A SCENE ON THE CANADIAN RIVER X KA K OKLAHOMA CITY. 




SCENE AT ONE OF THE COTTON SHIPPING POINTS IN OKLAHOMA. 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 23 

from these facts that the institution is subserving the ends for which it 
was established. 

The aggregate enrollment of the school for the first decade of its his- 
tory is a little more than 2,000, making an average attendance of 200 a 
year. The entire enrollment last year was 484; the enrollment for this 
year is 758. This is an increase of about 60 per cent over the preceding 
year. 

There is a fair prospect that the attendance for the ensuing year will 
be greater than in any former year. But a large attendance of students 
is not the object sought; it is excellence of work done, rather. 

A large number of the students attending this institution earn the 
money necessary to pay their way through school by teaching a part of 
the year; they then attend school the remaining part. Tuition is free 
in all departments, except that of instrumental music. 

The faculty consists of 24 members, all of whom are men and women 
of special training, education, and teaching ability, who take a sympa- 
thetic interest in the welfare of the student. 

THE NORTHWESTERN NORMAL SCHOOL. 

The Northwestern Normal School, of Alva, was the second normal 
to be established in Oklahoma. The law establishing it was enacted by 
the legislative assembly of 1897, ^nd the purpose of its founding was 
for the instruction of persons in the art of* teaching and in all the vari- 
ous branches pertaining to the public schools of Oklahoma Territory. 
The faculty was at first composed of a president and two teachers, and it 
has grown from year to year until now the faculty is composed of a pres- 
ident and 23 teachers. The enrollment has increased from year to year 
until it reached 610 for the past school year. The Northwestern Normal 
School is located in the beautiful city of Alva, the county seat of Woods 
county, the most populous county in Oklahoma. The site of this school 
is one of the finest in the West, being situated on an eminence one-half 
mile south of the center of town. 

The sanitary history of the school and the city has demonstrated 
beyond any reasonable doubt that no more healthful place can be found 
than Alva and its immediate surroundings. The purest of spring water 
is furnished the school and city, which largely assists in maintaining a 
high degree of healthfulness. 

The city has a population of about 3,500 people, made up of people 
from all parts of the Union. Many fine homes have been built during 
the past year, and there is an effort on the part of all residents to make 
Alva a beautiful and refined town, one that by its outward appearance 
would indicate culture and refinement to the most casual observer upon 
first visitation. The school is the pride of all citizens, and to it they 
give most loyal support. 

During the past year many permanent improvements have been made 
which add largely to the better equipment of the building. The cost of 



24 KEPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

these improvements amount to $8,515.51. Besides these improvements, 
$2,800 of past indebtedness has been cancelled. The seventh legislative 
assembly appropriated $2,200 and the literary societies paid the balance. 
The commercial department that was organized one year ago, and thor- 
oughly equipped with all modern conveniences, has proven to be one of 
the popular departments, having enrolled between 40 and 50 pupils dur- 
ing the past year. A biological workshop with all modern tools and a 
museum of more than 100 specimens, in a fine cabinet, have been 
a part of the improvements along scientific lines. New steel cases for 
the library and about $1,200 worth of books have been added to this 
part of the institution. The interior of the building has been much im- 
proved by the addition of an electric light system throughout. 

The seventh legislative assembly made it mandatory upon the normal 
schools of Oklahoma Territory to establish kindergarten departments 
within one year after the passage of the bill. The Northwestern Normal 
School has established such a department to carry out the provisions of 
the act. 

The course of study has been much extended and improved and is 
now equal to the best normal school in the West. 

One of the contemplated improvements for the coming year is to en- 
large the seating capacity of the assembly hall. The hall is now seated 
with desks, and it is the purpose to have the hall seated with 600 opera 
chairs, thus improving the seating accommodations. 

There are now six courses maintained in the institution — English- 
scientific, Latin, modern language, commercial, kindergarten, and music. 
Graduates of the first three courses receive diplomas, which are equal to 
five-year certificates, and may be renewed at the end of each five years by 
the Territorial superintendent. 

Teachers of Oklahoma holding first grade certificates are admitted to 
the freshman year of the normal department without • examination. 
Students from accredited high schools, other normal schools, university, 
agricultural college, and the preparatory university are admitted to 
the normal department without examination and are given credits com- 
mensurate with the progress made in the other schools. Owing to the 
very satisfactory work done in all the departments during the past year, 
but little change was made in the membership of the faculty for the 
coming year. 

The Northwestern Normal School is taking a very creditable rank 
with the very best institutions in the Territory. With its magnificent 
building, thoroughly equipped, and with a faculty of 23 able and ex- 
perienced teachers, and a student body of six or seven hundred pupils, 
this institution is bound to haVe a very excellent influence on Oklahoma 
and her institutions. 

THE SOUTHWESTERN NORMAL SCHOOL. 

The Southwestern Normal School was established by an act of the 
legislature of 1901. This act provided for a normal school to be located 




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OKLAHOMA'S GOLDEN HARVEST. 



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A ROADSIDE SCENE IN OKLAHOMA. 





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TYPICAL SCENES ON OKLAHOMA FARMS. 



KEPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 25 

in the southwestern part of Oklahoma. A committee appointed by the 
governor located the school in the city of Weatherford, in Custer County. 
This is one of the newest and most promising districts of the Territory. 
The citizens of Weatherford are filled with the progressive spirit, which 
is characteristic of their district. They are proud of the normal school 
and will spare no pains in seeing that the wants of the normal and the 
student body are readily supplied, so far as lies within their power. The 
city is of an altitude of 1,700 feet above sea level, and is one of the most 
healthful of the Southwest. It is on the main line of the Choctaw Rail- 
road which makes connections on the east at Geary and El Eeno with the 
Eock Island system from the north and south, and on the west at Clin- 
ton with the Frisco and Orient roads. 

The building when equipped will cost about $52,000. It is a modem 
structure of pressed brick, heated by steam, lighted by either gas or elec- 
tricity, and when completed will have both hot and cold water distributed 
throughout the building. It contains 18 class rooms, a library and read- 
ing room, offices, physical, chemical, and biological laboratories, a chapel, 
music rooms, cloakrooms, toilet rooms, lavatories, and a number of shower 
baths. The building will be ready for occupancy November 1. The 
normal will open up in temporary quarters in buildings which have been 
carefully fitted for the purpose. 

A campus of 40 acres of land was donated by the city of Weatherford 
as a normal site. The city has also expended $5,000 in fitting up and 
beautifying the grounds. The campus has been carefully graded, drives 
and walks have been laid out, and several hundred trees have been set 
out and are growing nicely. The drainage is perfect and the most san- 
itary conditions prevail. 

The legislature of 1903 appropriated $12,500 for the support of the 
school for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, and a like amount for the 
year ending June 30, 1905. 

The course of study for the Southwestern Normal School is as complete 
in every particular as that of normal schools generally. In many re- 
spects the course offered is more advanced than those of ordinary nor- 
mals. It is the aim of the administration to offer ample opportunity for 
professional work, but along with it a thorough academic training. A 
subnormal course of three years is ofPered preparatory to the four years* 
normal course. Students , coming with diplomas from approved high 
schools are admitted to the normal with the standing of juniors in 
the regular course. Those students coming with public school diplomas 
issued by the Territorial superintendent of public instruction are ad- 
mitted to the second year of the subnormal course without examination. 
The course of study is arranged with particular regard to specializa- 
tion. Sufficient work is required in each department to warrant a cer- 
tain degree of breadth and general culture. Then the course is made flex- 
ible enough to allow students to elect branches of work along the line 
for which he seems specially fitted or adapted. The head of the depart- 



26 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

ment under which the student elects his work becomes his patron and 
with the president constitutes a committee to plan and arrange his work 
thereafter. Thus students will have the advantage of an all-round 
course in the fundamentals of education and also special preparation in 
a particular field of related subjects. In this way special teachers of 
English, of mathematics, of science, of languages, of kindergarten, or 
of any other branch are trained for the city or public schools. They 
are trained with special reference to that which they can do best. This 
puts experts in place of teachers with a general training and cannot 
help but raise the standard of teaching. 

A special course in kindergarten is offered, arranged with regard to 
the preparation of teachers for kindergarten and primary grades. This 
is considered one of the advanced semi-professional courses and is open 
only to those having the standing of juniors in the regular normal course. 

The normal offers also a commercial course embracing two years of 
work. Students are admitted to this course who have standings equiva- 
lent to those of public school graduates. The department of music offers 
six years of work in instrumental and four years of work in vocal music. 
The department is well equipped with pianos and everything necessary 
for efficient work and thorough training. 

Since the Southwestern N'ormal School is so advantageously located 
the prospects are good for a full attendance from the very first. 
Judging from the number of applications and communications already 
received, the first year's enrollment will far exceed the estimates of ths 
most hopeful and optimistic observers. The board of regents has selecced 
a faculty of 15 members to have charge of the work of the school, but 
the prospects are that this number will be far inadequate for the vast 
amount of work which will be required of them. 

THE COLORED AGRICULTURAL AND NORMAL SCHOOL. 

This institution was established by an act of the legislature in 1897, 
for "the instruction of both male and female colored persons in the art 
of teaching, and in the various branches which pertain to a common school 
education; also, in such higher education as may be deemed advisable 
by such board, in the fundamental laws of the United States, in the riglits 
and duties of citizens, and in the agricultural, mechanical, and industrial 
arts." Forty acres of land were donated for building and agriculturr.l 
purposes by the citizens of Langston and its immediate vicinity, and the 
regents of the institution soon after took steps to erect a building with 
the appropriation which had been made by the legislature. School was 
opened in the fall of 1898 with four teachers and an enrollment of 40 
•tudents. By having night as well as day sessions during the greater 
part of the first year, the enrollment by the close of the year had reached 
181. Owing to the fact that the regents were not able to employ a suf- 
ficient number of teachers, the night sessions were not continued after the 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 27 

first year. The enrollment at the end of the second year was 187; at 
the close of the third year, 192; at the close of the fourth year, 211; at 
the close of the fifth year, 237. 

The faculty at present consists of 13 teachers, five of whom give their 
entire time to instructing students in the various industrial arts. The 
40 acres of land have increased to 160. There are now five 
commodious buildings, the main building, the mechanical building, two 
dormitories, and the president's residence. These buildings 
are all two stories in height. The main building, the mechanical build- 
ing, and the boys' dormitory are stone structures, while the girls' dor- 
mitory and the president's residence are frame. The main building has 
an auditorium with a seating capacity of 500, a fine society hall, an office 
for the president, and ten recitation rooms. The mechanical building has 
a drawing room, a large machine shop, and a carpenter shop. Connected 
with this building is a large blacksmith shop built of corrugated iron. 
Each one of the dormitories has a sufficient number of rooms to accommo- 
date over 60 students. The library has over 900 volumes, the reading 
room is well supplied with newspapers and periodicals, the laboratory 
and museum are well equipped, and the departments of agriculture, 
mechanic arts, and domestic economy are supplied with tools, imple- 
ments, stock, machinery, and apparatus worth not less than $10,000. 

That the investment made by the Territory in the establishment and 
equipment of this institution was wisely made is shown by the record of 
its teachers and students. During the past five years much good work 
has been done in the various departments. Besides the usual exercises 
which are conducted for the purpose of training the mental powers of 
the students, considerable stress has been placed upon the training of 
their moral powers. The effect of this training is seen in the fact that 
the conduct of the students from year to year has been of such a char- 
acter as to reflect no discredit upon the school, and has been the means 
of raising among the colored people of the Territory a higher standard 
of citizenship. While proper attention has been given by the management 
to mental and moral training, manual training has not been neglected. 
In addition to the work which is done from day to day under instructors 
in agriculture, domestic economy, machine work, carpentry, and black- 
smithing the students do all the work which is necessary to keep their 
dormitories in proper condition, conduct the laundry, perform all labor 
in connection with the boarding department, and see to it that the 
grounds about the buildings in which they live are kept clean. In this 
way industrial education is given a prominent place in the university, and 
the students are taught the importance and dignity of labor from the 
time they enter until they leave the institution. 

Judging from the efforts which are now being made to create a great- 
er interest among the colored people of the Territory in the work of this 
institution, and from the success which it has had in the past, I am 
satisfied that the attendance next year will be the largest in its history. 



28 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

OTHER SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES. 

There are several sectarian educational institutions located in various 
parts of the Territory. Among these may be mentioned the Kingfisher 
College (Congregational), located at Kingfisher, which occupies three 
large buildings, costing together with their equipment, $75,000. This 
institution enjoys a large endowment, and is annually increasing enroll- 
ment. 

The Epworth University located at Oklahoma City will open this year 
under peculiar auspicious circumstances, having a magnificent building 
costing $50,000 and equipment $25,000 more. The institution has an 
endowment of $40,000 at present. The enrollment will be 250. 

The Baptist College is located at Blackwell. Their new building which 
is very commodious, was completed in 1901. 

The Presbyterians have an academy at Newkirk, the Congregation- 
alists at Jennings, the Friends at Stella, and the Catholics a college for 
boys at Ponca and one for girls at Guthrie. 

UNITED STATES INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL AT CHILOCCO. 

The Chilocco Indian Industrial School was established by the Hon. 
James M. Haworth, the first superintendent of Indian schools. The 
school was opened in January, 1884, in what is now known as the boys' 
home. From this small beginning has grown the large institution known 
at present as the Chilocco Agricultural School. The school plant now 
consists of some thirty-five buildings, principally of stone, mostly heated 
by steam or hot water and lighted with electricity by the school plant, 
and has many other modern conveniences. Chilocco is a money-order 
postoflfice; it has telephone connections north and south, and flag stations 
on the Santa Fe and Frisco railway systems, both railroads running 
through the school lands. 

The Chilocco Agricultural School is endeavoring to do for the Indian 
what the State agricultural colleges and experimental stations are doing 
for the white man, i. e., teach agriculture, dairying, and stock and poul- 
try raising in all their branches both scientifically and practically, at the 
same time striving to instill in the Indian youth a love and desire for 
such pursuits. It is the ambition of the present management to bring 
the Chilocco Agricultural School up to the standard and pace set by the 
older institutions in the various states; hence every effort is concen- 
trated along these lines, everything else taking a secondary place. Only 
such trades and shopwork are taught as are necessary for keeping up 
the repairs of the school plant and equipment thereof. High school ed- 
ucation is not attempted, while foot-ball and kindred sports do not re- 
ceive the best attention or energy of the pupils. The superintendent has 
endeavored to secure a high class of instructors experienced along the 
various lines of agricultural tutelage, and in a measure has been quite 
successful. 



REPORT OF THE GOYERXOR OF OKLAHOMA. 29 

A more magnificent tract of land has never been set aside for ed- 
ucational purposes than has been provided for Chilocco, consisting of 
thirteen and one-half sections of land. The area in cultivation has been 
largely increased the last two years, over 2,000 acres now being in crop 
or ready for planting this fall. A wheat crop of 700 acres has just been 
harvested. 

It is the desire to still further increase the cultivated area, but large 
tracts will be reserved for pasturage and hay land. It is hoped in the 
near future to inaugurate a colonization scheme, which provides for the 
leasing to worthy graduates small farms for a series of years, thus en- 
abling them to apply lessons learned, as well as to acquire a small capital 
for further farming operations elsewhere. Many other improvements 
in the way of buildings, machinery and other equipments of a general 
and special nature are contemplated. 

INDIAN BOARDING SCHOOLS. 

The government maintains several boarding schools for Indian pu- 
pils. The following shows the attendance at each : 

Boarding schools: 

Absentee 60 

Cheyenne 140 

Fort Sill 170 

Kaw 43 

Osage 163 

Otoe 82 

Pawnee 182 

Ponca Ill 

Rainy Mountain 100 

Cantonment 105 

Red Moon 43 

Riverside 175 

Sac and Fox 94 

Seger 109 



MISSION SCHOOLS. 

Several religious denominations are maintaining industrial schools 
and academies at the locations mentioned below : 

Friends Mission Tecumseh. 

St. Louis Catholic Pawhuska. 

St. Johns Catholic Pawhuska 

South Methodist Anadarko. 

Roman Catholic Anadarko. 

Presbyterian (two) Anadarko. 

St. Benedicts Industrial for boys .• Sacred Heart. 

St. Marys Academy for girls Sacred Heart. 

The institutions located at Sacred Heart were established twenty-five 
years ago. by the Jesuit fathers. 



30 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

RAILWAYS. 

Oklahoma is well supplied with railroads, the principal trunk lines of 
the Southwest being represented. To the old lines of railway which were 
the pioneers have been added many extensions reacliing out into new ter- 
ritory and acting as feeders for the main lines. New trunk lines are 
building into the principal cities, and scarcely a town of importance or 
county seat is not now in touch with the markets of cities of other states 
and the Gulf or seaboard by some more or less direct line of railroad. 
Every county in the Territory has some railway mileage. 

Eailroad building has been an important factor in the rapid develop- 
ment of our Western prairies. Builders' materials and agricultural ma- 
chinery are thus early at hand to supply the requirements of the home- 
steader. 

The Galveston branch of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe covers 
the eastern portion of the Territory from north to south, from which 
are built connecting branches leaving the main line at Kewkirk, Guthrie, 
and Pauls Valley, which furnish transportation to those counties lying 
to the east. Direct communication is thus afforded to the Gulf ports as 
well as the eastern markets, Kansas City and Chicago. This road also 
has a line running through Woods and Woodward counties, in the north- 
west portion of the Territory. 

The Chicago and Eock Island parallels the Santa Fe from north 
to south, being about 35 miles distant at the nearest point. A branch 
from the main line runs west through the counties of Caddo, Kiowa, 
and Greer. At Enid another branch leaves the main line which it par- 
allels in its southerly course, passing through several counties and join- 
ing the main line at Waurika. An other branch passes through Beaver 
County, in the extreme northwest portion of the Territory. 

The Choctaw, Oklahoma and Gulf Eailway passes across the Ter- 
ritory from east to west, crossing several other railways in its course. 
It transports a large quantity of the coal consumed in the Territory, 
coming direct through the coal fields on the east. It is a direct line to 
Memphis and points in northern Texas. 

The St. Louis and San Francisco runs diagonally through the Ter- 
ritory from St. Louis to Quannah, Texas. Another lien traverses the 
Territory from north to south in the western portion. 

The Kansas City, Mexico and Orient is now completed about half- 
way through the Territory and runs in a southwesterly direction through 
some of the western counties. Eventually this line will afford direct* 
communication with Pacific ports and open up new markets for Okla- 
homa products. 

The Fort Smith and Western enters the Territory from the south- 
east, and has several important cities on its line, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 
being its eastern terminus. This new line will cross the Frisco four 
times, the Eock Island three times, the Katy twice, the Santa Fe four 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



31 



times, the Kansas City and Southern once, and the Orient once when 
completed to Pueblo. 

The Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma enters from the northeast and 
crosses a fertile and productive country. It is practically all graded, 
and steel is being laid as fast as they can. The connecting line from 
Wybark on the north and south line in the eastern part of the Territory 
is practically completed, as nearly all the steel has been laid and train 
service established. 

The Denver, Enid and Gulf is just completed between Guthrie and 
Enid, but is pushing on to the northwest. 

The Arkansas Valley and Western enters from the ea.-t and crosses 
several lines of railway in its course to the northwest. 

The following lines are under construction : Guthrie, Shavynee and 
Colgate; Colorado, Oklahoma and Texas; St. Louis, Oklahoma and 
Western; Oklahoma City and Northwestern. 

There is also under construction an electric line connecting the cities 
of Guthrie and Oklahoma City. Other lines are projected between Nor- 
man, Lexington, Tecumseh, and Shawnee. 

RATI, WAY MII^EAGE BY COUNTIES 



Beaver 

Blaine 

Caddo 

Canadian 

Cleveland 

Comanche 

Custer 

Day. . 

Dewev 
Garfield . 

Grant 

Greer 

Kay 

Kingfisher 

Kiowa 

I,incoln 

I.ogau 

Noble 

Oklahoma 

Pawnee 

Payne 

Pottawatomie . 

Roger Mills 

Washita 

Woods 

Woodward 



Main Track Side track 



Total. 



55.57 

114.10 

128.26 

71.96 

21.63 

149.71 

70.38 

3 78 

2.48 

129.36 

81.66 

103.53 

118.64 

46.51 

116.83 

177.43 

149.63 

39.86 

128.64 

62.24 

89.76 

95.07 

21.36 

39.67 

223.06 

65.72 



3.41 

9.56 
11.02 
13.48 

3.57 
13.40 

8.95 



2,306.84 



.96 

18.11 
7.13 
3.83 

19.05 
5.79 
9.71 
4.79 

14.17 
4.02 

21.48 
4.97 
8.43 

11.31 
7.13 
4.23 

14.25 
7.76 



225.47 



MII,EAGE OF THE RAILROADS IN OKLAHOMA TERRITORY. 



Atchinson. Topeka and Santa Fe. 

St. Louis And San Francisco 

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific. 

Choctaw, Oklahoma and Gulf 

Kansas City, Mexico and Orient... 
Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma .. 

Fort Smith and Western 

Denver, Enid and Gulf 



Total 1,929.06 



Main 
track 



586.87 
417.40 
509.34 
374.63 
14.47 



26.85 



Side 
track 



71.06 
48.13 
53.59 
54.24 
.49 



2.96 



225.47 



Grade 



49.99 



30.00 
88.58 
121.42 
61.10 
27.69 



378.78 



Total 



657.43 
510.52 
562.93 
458.87 
103.54 
121.42 
61.10 
57.50 



2,533.31 



32 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

The figures above given were taken from assessors' returns and in- 
dicates the status of railway building March 1, 1903. A report of new 
mileage at this time would show an increase of over 200 miles built 
since March 1. 

RAILWAY BUILDING. 

The large amount of railway mileage complete and now under con- 
struction in the Territory is particularly noteworthy. Fully 1,000 miles 
of main track, besides about 250 miles of side track, has been com- 
pleted. Much more will be finished and opened for traffic before the 
end of the year. In many localities new territory has been opened up, 
and its future development will doubtless soon equal that of the older 
settled communities. According to the Eailway Age, Oklahoma Terri- 
tory leads all other States and Territories in railway building, Texas 
being second, and the Indian Territory third. 

COMMERCE. 

Oklahoma ships annually thousands of cattle, sheep, and hogs. 
During the months succeeding harvest the the deluge of wheat to be sent 
by rail to the Gulf and eastern markets completely congests the arteries 
of traffic. The remarkable production of potatoes, peaches, and melons 
often taxes to the utmost the facilities of the railroads for moving them. 
■Of her other crops, such, as corn, oats, castor beans, cotton, and cotton 
seed, Oklahoma ships thousands of tons to the markets beyond her bor- 
ders 

The great development along agricultural lines makes an increasing 
•demand for farm machinery and implements. 

Continued immigration to the Territory brings hundreds of cars of 
^household goods and other belongings of new settlers on our vacant 
lands. Upwards of 20,000 carloads of coal have been shipped into the 
Territory during the past year. 

TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE. 

In addition to the Western Union Telegraph system, that has so 
long given its excellent service to all portions of the Territory, there will 
soon be in operation the Postal system, which will add its facilities for 
the rapid transmission of messages. 

There are several telephone companies doing business in the Terri- 
tory, among which may be mentioned the Pioneer Telephone Company, 
the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Telephone Company, and Southwestern 
Telephone Company. 

During the past year several extensions have been made by the man- 
agement of the Pioneer Company. New lines, with two metallic cir- 
cuits have been completed between the following-named cities and towns : 

Oklahoma City and El Eeno; Oklahoma City and Shawnee; Okla- 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 33 

homa City and Guthrie; Chandler and Wellston; Braman to South 
Haven, Kansas; Guthrie and Sparks; Gushing to Avery and Kendrick; 
Guthrie to Agra; Blackwell to Perry; Chandler to Shawnee. 

The exchange in Oklahoma City has been practically rebuilt. About 
$75,000 has been expended in construction and betterment of the toll 
lines and exchanges. 

The Missouri and Kansas Telephone Company have nearly 2,500 
miles of wire distributed among the following-named counties : 

Blaine, Canadian, Cleveland, Garfield, Grant, Kay, Kingfisher, Lin- 
coln, Logan, Oklahoma, Noble, Payne and Pottawatomie. 

They have installed excellent exchanges in Guthrie, Oklahoma City, 
El Eeno, Shawnee and Ponca City, and have just finished a new line 
from Oklahoma City to Shawnee. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Oklahoma is primarily an agricultural region. Distant from tide 
water and devoid of navigable rivers, it has never* possessed the advan- 
tages of commercial waterways. Coal deposits, if such exist, have not 
been discovered, and water power, while not lacking, has been very dif- 
ficult to develope. The agricultural possibilities of Oklahoma, however, 
have never been open to question. The fertile soil, the sunny skies, the 
equable climatic conditions, the indigenous flora and fauna, all betok- 
ened the possibilities of which men dreamed before Oklahoma was open- 
ed to settlement and which have now become living realities. Originally 
Oklahoma was a vast pasture ground, upon which buffalo, elk, deer, and 
antelope grazed in countless thousands. It was not strange, therefore, 
that when these had passed away the ranchman was quick to see and 
seize the opportunity and drive in herds of cattle from the ranges of 
Texas. But, as the huntsman of the roving aboriginal tribes had to 
give way to the herdsman, even so the herdsman had in time to give 
place to the husbandman, and a single generation was permitted to wit- 
ness this most remarkable transformation. 

The soils of Oklahoma are variable in character, the color, texture, 
and composition often presenting marked differences within the limits 
of relatively small areas, conditions that can be readily accounted for by 
the geologist. Among the soils that may be found in one part of Okla- 
homa or another are limestone or calcareous soils, sandstone or siliceous 
soils, gj'psum soils, granitic soils, and even lava soil, the latter only oc- 
curring in the western part of Beaver County. This variation in the 
character and composition of the soil accounts not only for the large 
measure of natural fertility, but also for the extent and variety of native 
flora and the ready adaptability of these soils to the support of vegeta- 
tion which has been introduced by civilization with the certainty that 
it will find conditions peculiarly suited to successful culture somewhere 
in Oklahoma. 

Situated as it is, in the latitude of North Carolina and Tennessee, 



34 KEPOET OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

Oklahoma's climate might be classed as being distinctly southern, and 
yet, at the same time, its maximum summer temperature is seldom, if 
ever greater than that of Nebraska or the Dakotas. But, while this is 
true, it has a much longer growing season than any of the States to the 
north and its minimum winter temperature is much higher, seldom 
reaching the zero point, and then only for a few hours. Lying west of 
the region of extreme humidity in the Mississippi Valley, for the most 
part it is east of the semi-arid region of the Great Plains, and usually has 
sufficient precipitation of moisture to mature the ordinary field, garden, 
and orchard crop of the Temperate Zone. 

Wheat, oats, and corn are the staple crops in the northern part of 
Oklahoma, supplemented by cotton in the central and southern counties, 
and Kaffir corn and the other non-saccharine sorghums in the western 
part of the Territory. Other important crops are cultivated success- 
fully, but not so extensively. 

• WHEAT. 

The wheat product of Oklahoma has been gradually increasing since 
the settlement of the country, subject, of course, to the fluctuations in- 
cident to more or less unfavorable seasons. Within the past fix years, 
however, the wheat growing industry of Oklahoma has become a recog- 
nized factor in the grain supply of the nation. According to the Federal 
census the total yield of wheat in Oklahoma in 1899 was 18,124,520 
bushels, an average of 14.16 bushels per acre. Since then the acreage 
of wheat has been increased in the older-settled portions of the Territory, 
while the thousands of r'v farms which have been opened up in the wes- 
tern and southwestern counties have augmented the acreage to almost 
double that of 1899, while the aggregate yield for 1903 is believed to be 
more than twice that of four years ago. Estimates range from 36,000,- 
000 bushels to 40,000,000 bushels. 

Comparatively little soft wheat is produced in Oklahoma, and the 
acreage of spring wheat is insignificant in comparison with that of win- 
ter wheat. Macaroni wheat has been introduced in the western part of 
Oklahoma, and, because, of its hardiness and drought-resisting qualities, 
it bids fair to become a staple crop there as elsewhere in the region of the 
Great Plains. 

In addition to the amount of grain produced, wheat is utilized by 
the farmers of Oklahoma as a winter pasture, thus effecting a great sav- 
ing in the matter of winter feed. Many, if not most, of the wheat fields 
of Oklahoma are thus pastured every winter, and that too, apparently 
without an appreciable reduction of the yield. 

The local milling interests furnish a home market for about 10,000,- 
000 bushels of Oklahoma's wheat product 

CORN. 

The yield of corn in Oklahoma in 1899 was 38,239,880 bushels, an 
average of 29.03 bushels per aero. Since that time the relative acreage 



REPOKT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 36 

of corn has decreased in several of the wheat-growing counties of cen- 
tral and northern Oklahoma, but with the acreage of the new farm* 
which have been opened up in the western and southwestern parts of the 
Territory added, the aggregate area devoted to com culture has been in- 
creased during the years that have elapsed since the census was taken. 
The estimate of the crop for 1903 is 60,000,000 bushels. 

Comparatively little of Oklahoma's corn crop is shipped beyond the 
borders of the Territory, the home demand for stock-feeding purposes 
generally equaling the available supply and insuring fair prices. 

OATS. 

The Federal census report places the total acreage of oats grown in 
the Territory in 1899 at 156,619, with an aggregate yield of 5,087,930 
bushels. The acreage and aggregate product are more than double those 
amounts this year. 

KAFFIR CORN. 

Kaffir corn has become recognized as a staple forage and grain crop 
throughout the drier regions of the Central West, and even where the 
rainfall is sufficient to readily mature Indian corn it is steadily growing 
in popularity as a forage crop. In 1899 Oklahoma produced more Kaffir 
corn than any other State or Territory — Kansas alone excepted — the 
total acreage for grain being 63,145, the yield being 1,110,473 bushels, 
while there are nearly 200,000 acres of Kaffir corn planted for fodder 
which yielded close to 3 tons of feed per acre. The culture of Kaffir 
corn for fodder and grain has greatly increased in Oklahoma since its 
hardiness, productiveness, and feeding value have become more gener- 
ally known and appreciated, the figures for the present year probably 
aggregating not less than three times those of four years ago. 

SORGHUM. 

Sorghum is quite generally planted as a forage crop and, in some 
infrequent instances, for the purpose of making syrup. It yields a heavy 
crop of nutritious forage, and, like its near relative, the Kaffir com, is 
distinguished for its hardiness under extreme conditions. 

BROOM CORN. 

In 1899 only the States of Illinois, Kansas, and Missouri outranked 
Oklahoma in the acreage of broom corn and amount of brush produced. 
In that year the acreage of broom corn grown in Oklahoma was 12,366, 
tod the product was 3,418,490 pounds. The present acreage is believed 
to be at least double that of four years ago. 

COTTON. 

Cotton culture in Oklahoma dates from 1890, and despite the de- 
pression in prices during the five years between 1893 and 1898 the Indus- 



36 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

try gradually increased until, in 1899, the total yield was 72,012 bales, of 
an average weight of 500 pounds, being the product of 240,678 acres. 
Since then the aggregate acreage has been greatly increased, the total 
yield for 1902 being placed at 218,390 bales. 

Cotton growing is largely confined to the counties of the central and 
southern parts of the Territory. The industry is one that entails great 
care and patience, but as a rule it has been found a remunerative one in 
Oklahoma. 

The by-products of cotton consist of the articles obtained by milling 
the seed — namely, cotton-seed oil, cotton-seed meal, and cotton-seed hulls, 
the last two being used extensively in the local feeding yards for fatten- 
ing cattle. Cotton-seed oil, from having been used quite largely as an 
adulterant in many food products, such as oleomargarine, lard, olive oil, 
etc., is becoming recognized as a standard food product of itself, and one 
that is worthy of a place on the market because of its own merits. 
When properly refined it is not inferior to the best grade of olive oil, for 
which, for all practical purposes, both in culinary operations and in 
medicine, it can be substituted with satisfactory results. A cotton-oil 
refinery is being erected for this purpose at Oklahoma City. 

ALFALFA, 

Alfalfa has come to be regarded as the greatest hay crop throughout 
Oklahoma, as it is quite generally over the greater part of the trans- 
Mississippi region. A leguminous plant of relatively high nutritive 
value, yielding, as it does in Oklahoma, three and four crops of hay each 
year, and standing, when once thoroughly established, for many years 
without reseeding, it approaches very nearly to the ideal of economic 
hay production. There were only a little over 15,000 acres of alfalfa 
reported as growing in Oklahoma in 1899 by the census. This has been 
increased at such a rate that, while complete data is not available, there 
is reason to believe the acreage is now three times as great. Interest 
in the culture of alfalfa is growing, and the increase in acreage in the 
future promises to be even greater, as there are hundreds of thousands 
of acres of land in Oklahoma which are peculiarly adapted to the pro- 
duction of this staple hay crop. 

MILLET AND HUNGARIAN. 

Millet and Hungarian grass are extensively grown and some heavy 
yields are recorded, the average for the Territory some years being nearly 
2 tons per acre. 

POTATOES. 

Within the past few years the farmers of eastern Oklahoma, espe- 
cially those of the North Canadian Valley in Pottawatomie County, have 
made a specialty of potato growing, and with very satisfactory results. 
The yield is ordinarily from 100 to 200 bushels per acre. Two crops 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 37 

are frequently grown from the same ground in one season. The prices 
realized during the past three or four seasons, since the local growers 
have organized a shippers' association, have ranged from 60 cents to 
$1 per bushel on the cars. The area that is especially adapted to the 
production of potatoes is a large one, and this particular industry seems 
destined to spread over a large part of several adjoining counties. 

SWEET POTATOES. 

The sandstone soils of eastern Oklahoma, when cleared of timber, 
furnish ideal conditions for the production of the best grade of sweet 
potatoes. As yet there has been but little effort made to grow sweet po- 
tatoes on a commercial scale, but when the possibilities of this special 
line are once recognized and developed Oklahoma grown sweet potatoes 
will be in active demand in the northern markets. 

CASTOR BEANS AND PEANUTS. 

Considerable attention has been given to the production of castor 
beans and peanuts in some of the eastern counties of Oklahoma, notably 
in Lincoln and Payne counties. The results, so far as yield are con- 
cerned, have been gratifying, but the distance from market and the lack 
of anything in the way of a plant to work up the product has rendered 
prices very unsatisfactory at times and has had a strong tendency to dis- 
courage the further development of these industries. With proper effort 
on the part of the promoters, a plant for the extraction of oil from 
castor beans and one for cleaning and sorting peanuts should prove prof- 
itable investments in Oklahoma. 

TRUCK GARDENING. 

The truck gardening industry is one that has not been developed to 
any extent whatever in Oklahoma, though it is known that there are 
wonderful possibilities for the specialist along that line. Onions, cab- 
bage, tomatoes, beans, peas, sweet corn, and, in fact, all kinds of vege- 
tables can be grown to perfection in large quantities for shipment. Ex- 
perienced truck gardeners can not find a better location, land values, 
local markets climate, and other things considered, than may be found 
in Oklahoma to-day. 

DAIRYING. 

The dairy industry is not nearly so well developed in Oklahoma as 
it should be. While the natural conditions are highly favorable for the 
profitable production of butter and cheese, the opportunity for special- 
ists in these line^ seems to be neglected, or at least overlooked. Thous- 
ands of pounds of butter are shipped into the Territory nearly every 
month in the year, while cheese actually comes in by the carload, practi- 
callv all of the last-mentioned commodity which is consumed in Okla- 
homa being the product of dairies in the Northern and Eastern States. 



38 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

Creameries and cheese factories would find a steady demand for their 
products right at home if properly conducted, and, under good manage- 
ment, could not fail to prove profitable, as investments. 

POULTRY. 

That the ideal conditions for the profitable production of poultry 
existed in Oklahoma was a fact that might be said to have been demon- 
strated in advance of its settlement by the variety and quantity of its 
feathered fauna. Wild turkey, prairie chickens, grouse, quail, and par- 
tridges fairly swarmed upon its prairies and its wooded hills and valleys. 
Domesticated birds seem to thrive equally as well, and poultry raising 
has been found to be a profitable industry from the first. The steady 
demand for live and dressed poultry, as well as for eggs, the remunera- 
tive prices, and the comparative ease with which poultry is raised in this 
climate, combine to render the poultry yard one of the most profitable 
adjuncts of the Oklahoma farm. Eggs and dressed poultry are shipped 
from various points in Oklahoma in carload lots. Cold-storage facili- 
ties for the handling of such products are becoming more numerous, but 
there is still room for the investment of more capital in such enterprises. 

HORTICULTURE. 

Oklahoma is peculiarly adapted to fruit raising. In a state of na- 
ture, among its indigenous trees, vines, shrubs, and bushes, the first set- 
tlers found more than fifteen species of edible fruits, including grapes, 
plums, blackberries, dewberries, currants, and others. Under these cir- 
cumstances it was not strange that the pioneer planters quickly decided 
that cultivated fruits in even greater profusion and variety would be 
found to readily adapt themselves to the climate and soil of Oklahoma. 
The first orchards were necessarily small, being planted on newly broken 
ground in the fall of 1889 and the spring of 1890. Many of these have 
now been in full bearing for nearly or quite ten years and have far sur- 
passed the expectations of the planters. 

While, in the very nature of things, all orchard planting was neces- 
sarily experimental so far as the selection of varieties was concerned, yet 
in all cases where good judgment has been used in the selection of site 
and varieties and proper care exercised in the way of cultivation, pruning, 
thinning, etc., orchardists have met with nearly uniform success in Okla- 
homa. Attempts at orchard planting on a commercial scale have been 
more recent and, as yet, comparatively few in number. Indeed, the 
latter are only now beginning to come into full bearing. Several com- 
mercial orchards of from 500 to 2,000 acres each are being projected 
now, to consist principally of Elberta peach trees, so that the fruit-grow- 
ing industry seems destined to be considerably expanded within the next 
few years in Oklahoma. 

APPLES. 

Apples have been grown successfully throughout the greater part 
of the Territory. In size, color, and flavor Oklahoma apples are not in- 




CO; 

a 



<i 



1* 


tSS^^ . ! 


it 




w ^ ,. 


:^^ ..J^ 


•>:■_„ 


,---^ .: - _ 





SOME UKLAHUMA SCHOOL HOUSES. 
Upper left, City; lower right, Country. 




^**yu: 




COZY FARM HOUSES OF OKLAHOMA 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 39 

ferior to those grown in regions which are exploited as being peculiarly 
adapted to the production of apples on a commercial scale. 

PEAKS. 

Pears have not been planted very largely in Oklahoma, but several 
of the varieties which have been thoroughly tested have produced large 
crops of fruit of very fine quality, thus evidencing the possibility of prof- 
it for the specialist. 

PEACHES. 

The peach seems to find an ideal habitat in the warm, sandy soils of 
central and eastern Oklahoma, where it reaches a state of perfect devel- 
opment. While this fruit has long been the pride of Oklahoma fruit 
growers, it was not until August, 1902, that peaches were shipped out 
of the Territory in carload lots to the large markets of the North and 
East, about 20 cars being billed out in all. This year it is estimated that 
there will be from 50 to 60 cars of fancy peaches shipped out of Okla- 
homa, besides large quantities that will be sent in small packages by ex- 
press. With large orchards now coming into bearing, and others still 
larger being planted, this special industry will in the near future become 
a very important one. Arrangements have been made, through the co- 
operation of the United States Department of Agriculture, to place a 
trial shipment of Oklahoma-grown Elberta peaches on the London, En- 
gland, market during the present season. 

APRICOTS AND PLUMS. 

Apricots grow successfully in all parts of the Territory, though never 
in quanity to equal the local demand. In its variety and profusion of 
wild plums Oklahoma is perahps not equaled by any State in the Union. 
Nearly all kinds of cultivated plums are known to succeed in cultivation 
here, but plum culture has not received the attention which it deserves 
at the hands of fruit growers in Oklahoma. 

CHERRIES. 

Cherries have proved to be a profitable orchard crop, especially in 
the northern and eastern sections of the Territory. The fruit is of ex- 
cellent quality and for several years past has been in active demand not 
only in the local markets but also for shipment. 

GRAPES. 

Grape culture has proven to be profitable in Oklahoma and a "num- 
ber of commercial vineyards have been planted. While the larger plan- 
• tations generally consist of two or three standard varieties, 3'-et it has 
been demonstrated that practically all of the finest varieties can be grown 
successfully in Oklahoma. The local markets are supplied with home- 



40 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

grown grapes continuously from the 1st of July to the 10th of October 
without resorting to cold storage. 

SMALL FRUITS. 

Nearly all of the small fruits can be grown successfully in Oklaho- 
ma, yet, strange to say, small-fruit specialists are so few in number that 
a large part of the demand for this class of stuff in local markets is of 
necessity supplied by shipment from adjoining states. Blackberries and 
dewberries, being indigenous, can be grown in large quantities and of 
the finest quality. Oklahoma strawberries are fully equal to the best 
grown elsewhere and the present acreage could be multiplied many times 
with profit. 

HORTICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT. 

In discussing the possible development of the gardening and fruit- 
growing industries of OklaJioma it is well to call attention to the field 
for profitable investment of capital in enterprises which are closely re- 
lated thereto, namely, the erection and operation of cold-storage plants, 
canning and preserving factories etc. It has been conservatively estimat- 
ed that the people of Oklahoma contribute not less than $100,000 annual- 
ly to the payment of freight charges alone on canned fruit and vegetables 
that could be readily produced at home. Likewise, large quantities of 
fresh fruit and garden truck are shipped in from surrounding States 
which the home producer could easily supply if afforded the proper fac- 
ilities and opportunities for cold storage. But with the multiplying' evi- 
dences of enterprise on the part of those who are most interested, these 
advantages and conveniences will soon be supplied. 

SALE OF FARM LANDS. 

The registers of deeds in the various counties have reported upward 
of 1,300 transfers of farm properties during the month of April, at 
prices ranging for good land from $10 to $40 per acre. The prices gen- 
erally obtained have ranged higher than in former years. 

Oklahoma farm land has shown its universal productivity, and, be- 
ing adapted to such a diversity of crops and often producing more than 
one crop during a season, it has become known abroad as a land of pros- 
perity. Improved farm property at the present figures is cheap when 
compared with the older States. Markets are just as good for all farm 
products as in the East. They are raised on every hand much easier, 
with less labor, and in quantities nearly double those produced on older 
soils which have long been under cultivation. 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



41 



The table below shows the number of transfers recorded and prices 
per acre in each county, as returned by the register of deeds for one 
month : 



County 



Beaver 

Blaine 

Caddo 

Canadian 

Cleveland 

Comanche 

Custer 

Day 

Dewey 

Garfield 

Grant 

Greer 

Kay 

Kingfisher 

Kiowa 

I<incoln 

Logan 

Noble 

Oklahoma 

Pawnee 

Payne 

Pottawatomie.. 
Roger Mills ... 

Washita 

Woods 

Woodward 



Number 
of sales 



34 

58 

15 

3 

14 
45 
22 
160 
338 
29 
20 
200 
47 
14 
85 
13 
36 



Total 
acres 
trans- 
ferred 



2,200 
2,rt47 
804 
8,800 
4,200 
7.988 
1,980 
480 
1,990 
(3,988 
3,234 
7,920 

12,396 
3,175 
3,1140 

20.000 
6,121 
1,560 
8,9(55 
1,451 
4,592 



2,085 
2,601 
12,237 
3,219 



Total 
price 
paid 



Price Per Acre 



J13,670 
31,081 
16,647 
22,000 
79,800 
40,960 
31,481 
3,650 
20,175 

159,160 
70,450 
95,042 

594,008 
59,106 
46,550 

400,000 

134,275 
38,000 

119,622 
20,679 
75,950 



I«owest 



24,206 
53,000 
187,864 
19,584 



J2.18 
6.25 

10.35 

12.50 
5.00 
7.75 
5.00 
5.31 
3.12 

13.13 
6.25 
4.00 

38.00 
1.00 
6.50 

10.00 
5.00 

12.50 
3.12 
3.12 
7.00 



2.10 

12.50 

6.00 

2.50 



Highest 



$28.12 
28.00 
53.18 
37.50 
43.75 
23.50 

175.00 
11.25 
18.75 
33.75 
37.50 
30.00 
63.00 

250.00 
25.70 
35.00 
42.57 

200.00 

833.00 
91.75 
40.00 



125.00 
50.00 
54.00 
18.60 



Average 



$6.21 
11.74 
20.70 
26.00 
19.00 
18 95 
16.00 
7.60 
9.05 
22.77 
21.75 

lafoo 

45.00 
18.61 
15.31 
20.00 
21.93 
24.00 
25.50 
20.97 
16.50 



11.11 

20.37 
15.00 
5.77 



ANNUAL RAINFALL. 



Section Director C. M. Strong has prepared the following tables 
showing the average precipitation in inches from 1892 to 1903 : 



Summer Months 

June, 1902 

July, 1902 

August, 1902 

Average 

Fai/L Months 

September, 1902 

October, 1902 

November, 1902 

Average 

Winter Months 

December, 1902 

January, 1903 

February, 1903 

Average 

Spring Months 

March, 1903 

April, 1903 

May, 1903 

Average 

Seasonal average 



Temper- 
ature 


Depar- 
ture 


Precipi- 
tation 


Depar- 
ture 


77.4 
79.7 
84.2 


XO.3 
—1.7 
x3.1 


2.42 
2.22 
2.19 


—0.81 
—1.16 
—0.53 


80.4 


X0.6 


0.83 


—2.76 


68.2 
62.9 
53.5 


—5.5 
—0.1 
x5.3 


5.94 
1.82 
5.56 


X3.12 
-0.76 
x3.§9 


61.5 


-0.1 


13.32 


X5.95 


37.4 
39.2 
35.7 


—2.2 
xl.4 
—2.1 


2.11 
0.59 
3.95 


X0.21 
—0.57 
X3.59 


37.4 


—1.0 


6.65 


X2.21 


49.8 
60.3 
65 8 


xO.l 
—1.3 
—3.1 


2.73 
1.32 
7.33 


X 0.50 
—1.54 

xl.57 


58.6 


—1.4 


11.38 


xO.53 



X5.93 



42 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



AVERAGE MONTHI^Y AND ANNUAI, PRECIPITATION. 



Year 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


jApr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. ! 


Nov. 


Dec. 


An- 
iiual 


1892 


0.46 

.63 

2.33 

1.07 

1.04 

1.87 

3.09 

1.01 

.69 

.52 

.61 

.59 


2.02 

1.07 

1.84 

.56 

.66 

.96 

2.50 

.56 

1.44 

.94 

.39 

3.95 


2.89 

1.47 

2.97 

.72 

1.09 

4.16 

3.87 

.85 

.76 

1.53 

4.02 

2.73 


2.25 
2.71 
4.26 
1.24 
1.49 
5.38 
1..52 
3.62 
4.44 
2.95 
3.15 
1.32 


9.70 
2.68 
3.25 
2.91 
3.79 
5.20 
8.16 
6.00 
4.59 
5.39 
10.13 
7.33 


3.05 
2.12 
1.55 
5.78 
3.28 
3.12 
4.64 
5.06 
2.58 
1.97 
2.42 
2.10 


2.61 
3.48 
1.72 

5.58 
3.91) 
2.05 
4.44 
6.05 
4.15 
1.92 
2.22 


4.03 
5.16 
1.51 
5.06 
1.46 
3.12 
3.26 
.87 
1.75 
1.55 
2.19 


1.62 
3.18 
2.73 
1.10 
2.19 
1.86 
2.24 
1.9U 
6.68 
1.56 
5.94 


5.23 

.15 
1.89 
3.14 
2.75 
1.37 
1.96 
4.30 
3.73 
1.99 
1.82 


0.63 

1.51 

.30 

3.79 

1.83 
.51 
1.04 
4.01 
1.18 
1.34 
5.56 


3.66 
1.33 
1.22 
4.13 
1.24 
1.01 
2.73 
1.84 
.51 
1.12 
2.11 


38.15 


1893 


25.49 


1894 


25.57 


1895 


35.08 


1896 


23.78 


1897 


30.61 


1898 


39.45 


1899 


36.07 


1900 


32.50 


1901 


22.78 


1902 


40.56 


1903 








1 




1 




Average 


1.16 


1.41 


2.23 


2.86 


5.76 


3.14 


3.38 


2.72 


2.82 


2.58 


1.97 


1 1.90 


31.93 



STOCK RAISING. 

In former years cattle were extensively fed on the range, roaming 
for miles in any direction without molestation upon land that was once 
thought to he unfit for agricultural purposes, but has since been occupied 
by the homesteader and home builder. The scene is now changed, and 
but little of the old large pastures is now available for grazing. The 
result is smaller herds of finer grades. Much attention is now paid to 
the qualities of the various strains which prove best for shipping beef or 
dairy products. 

The short cold season has always been an important factor \a the 
wintering over of stock in this locality. Much less feed is required and 
the stock come out better in the spring than in any of the northern cat- 
tle districts. 

The short nutritious grass that grows so abundantly in the higher 
altitudes of the Territory becomes self-cured in the fall at the time of 
frost, and has often proved to contain sufficient nutriment not only to 
sustain the life of vast herds but to actually fatten them during the win- 
ter months. 

The proximity of good markets, the abundance of grass and forage 
crops, together with the short cold season, make Oklahoma an ideal 
place in which to profitably pursue the stock-raising industry. 

The Texas Longhorn of the past has given way to the thoroughbred, 
and evidences of grading can be seen in every locality. The Hereford, 
Shorthorns, and ever-popular Jersey can he seen on very hand. 



HORSES AND MULES. 

In quality and value the horses and mules used and raised in Okla- 
homa will ccrmpare very favorably witli any State in the Union. There 
is a good demand for horses of medium weight and good form and ac- 
tion, though all sorts of sound animals are bringing good prices. It has 
always been a profitable business for farmers to raise several colts each 
year. Brood mares, if properly handled, will do their share of the farm 
workj and many farmers are now U'^ing goorl team^: of their own raising. 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 43 

The absurd idea that horses from the North do not thrive here is being 
dispelled. There were losses in the years immediately following the set- 
tling up of the country, but they were largely due to lack of feed and 
care. For heavy farm work, mules are much in favor, and some fine 
specimens have been raised. They command excellent prices and are 
always in demand. 

SHEEP AND ANGORA GOATS. 

Sheep raising is carried on more or less extensively in every county 
in the Territory. They are raised successfully and bring good prices in 
the market for slaughter, besides being a source of considerable income 
in wool produced. While not so numerous as in cooler and higher alti- 
tudes, they are recognized as profitable adjuncts to the stock of a farm. 
They have been remarkably free from disease. 

The angora goat thrives in this country, and the raising of them 
seems destined to become a settled industry. They are not only valuable 
for market while young, but their fleece is a source of revenue. It is 
also advanced on good authority that a few angoras will protect a herd 
of sheep from the devestation of wolves and coyotes. 

WICHITA MOUNTAIN MINERALS. 

The mineral resources of the Wichita Mountains are practically un- 
developed, hence no one knows the value or extent of the riches deposited 
therein. The mineral districts comprise townships 2, 3, 4, and 5, north, 
and ranges from 13 to 19 W. I. M.. inclusive, and embraces an area of 
over 3,000 square miles, which is of course interspersed with agricul- 
tural lands. It is claimed that there are dates on old rocks which indi- 
cate that gold was discovered in the AVichita Mountains as far back as 
1832. 

Since the opening of the new country there has been more or less 
'excitement over mineral prospects, but capital is slow to develope pros- 
pects, hence about all the work that has been done has been accomplished 
by the fellows of limited capital and unlimited faith. 

There are reported five shafts at a depth of 100 feet, while hundreds 
vary from a depth of 10 to 50 feet. 

The mineral-bearing mountains have been legally divided into five 
mining districts. 

It is reported that there are nearly 3,000 members who have recorded 
claims in the various districts. 

There are no shipping mines as yet, although single carloads have 
been recently sent to the smelters to ascertain the true value of the ore. 

Confidence of the presence of mineral in paying quantities has in- 
duced some capitalists, it is now reported, to establish a smelter and re- 
duction plant at an accessible point. With these facilities and the as- 
surance of capit<il becoming interested, it is expected that development 
will progress more rapidly than in the past. 



44 BEPORT OF TtlE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA, 

FORESTS AND THE PRODUCTION OF LUMBER. 

A vast variety of woods are indigeuous to Oklahoma among which 
may be mentioned black walnut, honey locust, hickory, box elder, black- 
jack, red elm, white sumach, catalpa, sycamore, soft maple, burr oak, 
water elm, persimmon, birch, shellbark hickory,, mulberry, black hickory, 
ash, red oak, white oak, paw paw, pecan, yellow pine, white locust, iron- 
wood, red cedar, willow, wild cherry, chinaberry, red bud, black locust, 
chittum, Cottonwood. 

In some instances trees have attained immense size, and in some 
localities much lumber, is being cut. While the central and western por- 
tions are but scantily supplied with timber except along the banks of 
streams, the eastern portion is in many places heavily wooded. Here 
local sawmills have for many years been busily engaged during the win- 
ter months in getting out fuel and lumber. The cutting of black wal- 
nut logs and shipping them to foreign markets has become quite an 
industry. 

LABOR SUPPLY. 

The laborer can always find profitable employment in Oklahoma, 
Industries are growing and thriving, new enterprises starting, and all 
require man's labor, mental or physical, skilled and unskilled. Mills, 
compresses, manufactories, and new lines of railway are annually in- 
creasing their pay rolls. 

The several new lines of railway have brought into the Territory 
large numbers of laborers in the construction of their roadbeds. Good 
wages are generally paid. There is always a demand for good farm 
hands, and during the wheat harvest, fruit seasons, and cotton-picking 
time the supply seldom meets the demand. With the continued growth 
along industrial lines which is sure to follow in our numerous prosperous 
cities located on intersecting lines of railway, the outlook for the laborer 
is indeed promising. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

There are no Territorial public buildings, and, as Congress has pro- 
hibited the locating of any structures of this kind, the Territorial pris- 
oners, insane, deaf, and dumb must be cared for by contract with private 
institutions or neighboring States, although there is an increasing fund 
in the treasury created for the purpose of erecting public buildings. 
This fund amounts at the present time to $25G,60G.69. 

Public library buildings have been erected by Andrew Carnegie in 
two cities, Guthrie and Oklahoma Citj^, and another is under construc- 
tion at ISTorman, each costing about $30,000. 

Plans have been drawn for a public building to be erected in Gutlirie 
costing, complete, $250,000. Congress has appropriated the sum of 



REPORT OF THE GOVERXOR OF OKLAHOMA. 45 

$100,000 for this purpose, and also a similar amount for a building to 
be located in Oklahoma City. 

Among the new public edifices being erected for educational pur- 
poses at the. present time may be mentioned Southwestern N'omial, at 
Weatherf ord ; addition to Edmond IS^ormal, at Edmond, county liigh 
school, at Guthrie, and Epworth University, at Oklahoma City. 

ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW. 

Applicants for admission to practice law are now required to pass 
an examination under direction of a commission appointed by the su- 
preme court of the Territory. This may be either written or oral. Ad- 
mission upon the report of this commission to the supreme court of the 
Territory admits one to all courts of record in the Territory, 

BANKS AND BANKING. 

A few changes were made by the last legislature in the Territorial 
banking law, the principal one of which is that no bank can hereafter 
be authorized to do business in the Territory unless it has a paid-up cap- 
ital of not less than $10,000. Under the new law the capital stock of 
banks in cities of various populations is as follows: In towns or cities 
having less than 2,500 inhabitants, not less than $10,000 ; in cities hav- 
ing more than 2,500 inhabitants and less than 5.000, not less than $15,- 
000; in cities having more than 5.000 inhabitants and less than 10,000, 
not less than $20,000 ; and in cities having over 10.000 inhabitants, not 
less than $25,000. 

CORPORATIONS. 

Few changes were made in the law of corporations, principally in 
enlarging the number of purposes for which association may become in- 
corporated. Notably among these additions are corporations formed for 
literary, educational, and historical purposes; building and investment 
companies; merchandizing companies, wholesale or retail, and companies 
for the purpose of locating, laying out. and improving town sites. Cor- 
porations are given the power to purchase, hold, and convey real estate 
for the purpose of their incorporation. Insurance companies are not 
allowed to become incorporated except under restrictions of the insur- 
ance laws of the Territory. 

The only changes made in railroad legislation of note was the one 
requiring' all railroad corporations in the Territory to fence their prop- 
erty and to render such corporations liable for such damages that may 
occur by reason of their failure to construct such fences. 

SCHOOL FUNDS. 

Funds arising from the leasing of sections 13 were by the last leg- 
islature apportioned as follows: One-seventh of the total amount for 
the use and benefit of the Universitv of Oklahoma at Norman : one-sev- 



46 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

enth to the Agricultural and Mechanical College at Stillwater; one-sev- 
enth to the Territorial Normal School at Edmond; one-seventh to the 
Northwestern Normal School at Alva; one-seventh to the Southwestern 
Normal School at Weatherford ; one-seventh to the University Prepara- 
tory school at Tonkawa, and one-seventh to the Colored Agricultural and 
Normal University at Langston. 

TAXATION. 

Little change was made in the law regulating revenue. Personal 
or real property situated in unorganized country of this Territory is to 
be taxed in the organized county to which the unorganized country is 
attached for judicial purposes, and a special assessor is provided for such 
unorganized country. The rate of the general Territorial tax for the 
years 1903 and 1904 is made by law to be not in excess of 3 mills on the 
dollar valuation. It is provided by law that before any holder of a certi- 
ficate of purchase issued at any tax sale of real estate shall be entitled to 
a tax deed he shall cause a written notice to be served upon the' owner of 
the land in the county wherein the sale took place, and also upon the per- 
son in possession of the land, and in case of non-residence of the above- 
named parties or in case they cannot be found in the county where the 
real estate is located, the service of the notice is to be made by publication. 

UNDEVELOPED RESOURCES. 

Oklahoma has many resources that have not been developed at all 
or only in a small way. Among the more important natural deposits, 
the extent and value of which only a meager conception is entertained 
by the people in general, may be mentioned gypsite and gyp rock, from 
which is manufactured cement and several grades of plaster. 

Professor Van Vleet, Territorial geologist, has made careful inves- 
tigation throughout the counties lying in the gypsum region and esti- 
mates the available amount deposited in these beds to be 125,800,000,000 
tons. They are practically inexhaustible. The problems of transpor- 
tation and cheap fuel are the most important ones to be solved, but since 
the extension of several lines of railroad through this region the greatest 
hindrance to its development seems to have been overcome, thus assuring 
the success of this industry. With oil as a fuel instead of coal, the cost 
of manufacture will be very much lessened. 

Oil and gas have been discovered in several locations, and further 
investigations are being made by companies who find sufficient encour- 
agement in the outlook to warrant them in leasing thousands of acres 
of land and bringing to the Territory extensive drilling equipments. The 
oil thus far produced is very heavy, and the output of several wells com- 
mands a good price for lubricating purposes. At the west end of 
the Wichita Mountain Range, in the vicinity of Granite, wells are pro- 
ducing from 10 to 50 barrels per day from a depth of less than 200 feet. 

Favorable reports have been received from other points, and at Law- 





WHEAT 



COTTON 



Wherein We Excel. 




OKLAHOMA CORN. 

Over twenty feet high on 

exhibition at St Louis. 

World's Fair. 



JAPANESE PLUMS. 
From Oklahoma Tree Three Years Old. 





SOME OF THE REASONS WHY OKLAHOMA FARMERS ARE PROSPEROUS. 






H"" 



* 



•^ itjf 



m 



m 



..^ 




AN OKLAHOMA WATERMELON FIELD. 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 47 

ton and Newkirk oil has been obtained in pa)ring quantities. The gas 
wells at Newkirk are producing sufficient flow to afford light for the 
town. At a depth of about 600 feet the true gas sands were struck. 

The granite fields are located in Greer County. They consist for the 
most part of high and massive mountains, and there is such an abun- 
dance of the rock exposed above the ground that that portion alone would 
supply the granite-using world for years to come. The quality of the 
granite is of the very best. A large portion of it is a solid red granite, 
and is pronounced by experts to be equal to the celebrated Peterhead Red 
Scotch granite and equally adaptable for monumental and building pur- 
poses. The granite can be taken out in immense blocks, which adds much 
to the monetary value as well as increasing its desirability for building 
purposes. 

It is being demonstrated that the Wichita Mountains contain much 
hidden mineral wealth. Gold and copper have been found in paying 
quantities and capital has been interested. Concentrating plants and 
smelters are in course of construction. 

The salt areas are found in two localities known as the Salt Plains 
of Blaine County and the Salt Plains of the Cimarron. These are each 
of considerable commercial importance. In both places there are large 
salt springs, the waters of which contain a very high per cent of salt, and 
the cost of evaporation and transportation is the only one connected with 
its production. Several concerns are manufacturing salt in a more or 
less crude manner, and it would seem that with modem appliances and 
better transportation this industry might be very profitable. 

Among the most valuable resources of the Territory are its clay, 
from which may be manufactured building brick, paving brick, tiling, 
etc. This is an industry that is but partially developed, but enough has 
been done along this line to prove that the Territory has an abundance 
of good raw material. 

Good limestone for building purposes is found in many localities. 
In the northeastern portion of the Territory several large quarries have 
been opened which are producing an excellent quality of material. 

GEOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY. 

The fifth session of the legislative assembly of Oklahoma created a 
department of geology and natural history, with headquarters at the 
University of Oklahoma. The object for which the department was cre- 
ated is thus stated in the act providing for it : 

A department of geology and natural history is hereby established for the 
purpose of beginning and continuing the geological and scientific survey of 
this Territory and of discovering and developing its natural resources, and 
disseminating Information in regard tp its agricultural, mining, and manu- 
facturing advantages. 

The department has made preliminary reports on the general geol- 
ogy, gypsum deposits, the Permian fossils, both vertebrate and inverte- 
brate, plants, birds, and snakes of the Territory. 



48 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



The red-beds formation is the most important in the Territory as it 
is the origin of most of the soil and furnishes the gypsum and salt as 
well as a great part of the building stone and clays. The thickness of 
the red-beds has not been determined, but it is not less than 2,000 feet. 
They consist largely of clays and shales, interstratified with beds of 
sandstone, dalomite, and gypsum. These latter being harder, resist 
erosion, and so form the caps of hills, buttes, and bluffs of the region. 
These products are of great commercial importance. 

By reference to the last report of the department of geology and 
natural history it is found that there are 125,800,000,000 tons of gyp- 
sum distributed as follows : 



County 



Blaine , 

Caddo 

Canadian... 
Comanche. 

Custer 

Day 

Dewey 



Tons 



•2.500,000,000 

3,000,000,000 

50,000,000 

200,000,000 
6,000,000,000 

500,000,000 
1,000,000,(.K)0 



County 



Greer 

Kingfisher... 
Roger MiUs. 

Washita 

Woods 

Woodward ... 



Tons 



53,000,000,000 
50,000,000 
1,000,000,000 
20,000,000,000 
14,000,000,000 
24,000,000,000 



This estimate includes only the principal areas. 

The use of gypsum in the manufacture of cements plasters, fertil- 
izers, etc., is well understood. That more mills have not been located 
in Oklahoma seems to be due solely to the lack of means of transporta- 
tion. Since these regions have been penetrated by railroads, and at 
present, the following are in operation: The Kuby Mill, in central 
Blaine County: the Watonga Mill, at Watonga, Blaine County; the 
Okarche Mill, Canadian County; the Kay County Mill, near Peckham, 
Kay County. 

There are many good sites for mills, and with its inexhaustible sup- 
ply of gypsum Oklahoma is bound to rank among the first, if not the 
first, in the manufacture of products from gypsum. 

There are at least two salt areas in Oklahoma of commercial impor- 
tance — the Salt Plains of the Cimmaron and the Salt Plains of Blaine 
County. In both of these areas large springs of water containing a 
high per cent of salt occur, and shallow wells sunk almost anywhere on 
the plains yield an abundance of brine. The only cost connected with the 
manufacture of salt is evaporation and transportation. So far this has 
been sufficient to prevent its manufacture on a large scale, but adequate 
shipping facilities, with direct communication with the coal mines of 
Indian Territory, is sure to make this one of the most important indus- 
tries of the Territory. 

The sandstone of the red-beds varies in texture from a coarse rotten 
shale to a hard fine-grained sandstone. The better grades are used 
quite extensively for building purposes. 

In the northeastern portion large areas of limestone occur, much of 
it a superior quality of building stone. Large quarries have been opened 
and a great deal of stone is being quarried and shipped. 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



49 



Much is claimed for the granite of the Wichita Mountains, and while 
its use is as yet limited, there is no doubt that it will prove of value as 
a building stone. 

The native timber of Oklahoma consists of the usual western varie- 
ties — several species of oak, elm, ash, hackberry, hickory, pecan, cotton- 
wood, walnut, cedar, etc. The timber in the western portion of the Ter- 
ritory is, for the most part, found skirting the streams. 

In the central and eastern portions there are quite extensive areas of 
large timber, including the varieties mentioned. The so-called black- 
jack covers a large part of the southeastern portion. This furnishes a 
fine quality of fuel, and the land when cleared is fertile, this being the 
best cotton belt in the Territory. 

An investigation of the native grasses has revealed a surprising num- 
ber of varieties. Over 100 are now on record, and the list is not complete. 
Many of these make excellent pasturage and hay, and long before it was 
opened for settlement Oklahoma was known as an excellent grazing coun- 
try and supported thousands of head of horses and cattle. The mild 
climate, with an abundance of winter pasturage, has made Oklaoma 
one of the greatest stock countries in the west. 

Oklahoma is primarily an agricultural country, but with an abund- 
ance of coal, oil, and gas just on its eastern border and with its immense 
deposits of gypsum, salt, and building stone it is one of the most favor- 
ably located districts in the whole West. 

ALTITUDES IN OKLAHOMA. 



Alva 1,330 

Anadarko 1,171 

Arapaho 1,560 

Beaver 2,500 

Bridgeport 1,425 

Burnett 1,200 

Calumet 1,375 

Cashion 1,014 

Chandler 900 

Choctaw City 1,109 

Clifton 1,030 

Council Grove 1,234 

Dale 1,039 

Dickson 1,219 

Doggett 910 

Earlboro 1,028 

Edmond 1,191 

El Reno 1,326 

El Reno Junction 1,334 

Enid 1,244 

Fort Reno 1,345 

Garber 1,183 

Geary 1,545 

Granite 1,591 

Guthrie 932 

Hardesty 3,000 



Hobart 1,528 

Jones City 1,145 

Kenton 3,900 

Kildare 1,102 

Kingfisher 1,048 



Lakeview 1,214 

Lawton 1,250 

Luther 935 

McLoud 1,057 

Mangum 1,585 

Medford 1,091 

Mountain View 1,320 

Mulhall 936 

Hunger 1,195 

Newkirk 1,149 

Noble 1,158 

Norman 1,159 

Oklahoma City 1,200 

Pawnee 786 

Perkins 794 

Perry 871 

Pond Creek 1,046 

Ponca City 946 

Ripley 776 

Shawnee 1,045 

Stillwater 832 

Stroud 910 

Sweeney i,070 

Union City 1,319 

Virginia 1,206 

Waukomis 1,238 



Hennessey 1,159* Waynoka 1,464 



Weatherford 1,650 

Wellston 900 

Wichita Mountains 3,000 

Woodward 1,880 

Yukon 1,299 



50 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

CITIES OF THE TERRITORY. 

An incorporated town may become a city of the first class when it 
attains a population of 2,500. At the present time some 21 towns have 
been proclaimed cities of the first class. Most of them have good systems 
of waterworks^ electric lights, police and fire protection, good sidewalks, 
graded streets, and some public buildings. Some have paved streets of as- 
phalt or brick, sewer systems, gas plants, electric street-car lines, public 
parks, fine opera houses, and churches. All have good graded schools, 
and many have beautiful and substantial school buildings. Each has its 
commercial club, composed of the energetic and influential element of 
the place, which exerts every effort to build up the town and secure busi- 
ness enterprises and manufacturing industries. 

MANUFACTURING. 

Manufacturing among the various industries which engage our pop- 
ulation has made great advancement in the past few years. While not 
so fortunate as some other localities in our supply of cheap fuel or water 
power, yet those who have been the pioneers in establishing these enter- 
prises have prospered. With several new lines of railroad coming directly 
through the coal fields on the east and the discovery of oil within and 
just outside our borders, the prospect is much brighter for cheaper fuel 
and the consequent success of other institutions now in contemplation. 

The raw material is at hand on every side and the increasing number 
of flour mills, cotton-seed oil mills, plaster and cement mills, broom fac- 
tories, shoe factories, foundries, gas plants, cracker and candy manufac- 
tories, etc., all of which are in a flourishing condition, indicate that Ok- 
lahoma in the near future may be classed among the manufacturing 
States. 

The immense amount of wheat straw that is burned or allowed to go 
to waste would seem to make this an inviting field for paper mills. The 
vast quantity of farm machinery shipped into the Territory would sug- 
gest a possible lucrative industry in its manufacture. Ice factories, 
creameries, cheese factories, canning factories, brick plants, and many 
other manufacturing industries would find an excellent field here in which 
to locate. 

FLOURING MILLS. 

At the present time there are 60 mills in operation in the Territory, 
half of them being owned and operated by incorporated milling com- 
panies having a total capitalization of over $1,500,000. A large number 
of these corporations represent an investment of from $50,000 to $150,000. 

As the principal wheat growing district lies west of the main line of 
the Santa Fe Railroad, we find that thife area of wheat production influ- 
ences the location of mills, and thus it is that we find 24 mills in opera- 
tion which are located at points on and west of the Santa Fe Railway. 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 51 

The output of Oklahomas flour mills during the past three years 
has been something enormous, and the products are distributed from 
the British provinces on the north to the Gulf States on the south, and 
a vast amount of Oklahoma flour has been going into the export trade 
and is no small factor in the ports of Galveston, Baltimore, and New- 
York. Indian Territory, Arkansas, and the Texas Panhandle all pur- 
chase Oklahoma flour and get more from here than anywhere else. 

Yet it is a fact that the milling business in Oklahoma is yet in its 
infancy. About 12 new mills were erected during the past year, the ca- 
pacity of a number of others was increased, so that the increase in ca- 
pacity during the twelve months past has exceeded 25 per cent. 

Flour manufacturing in this Territory has proven generally suc- 
cessful and but few lines of enterprise have shown as good profits. 
There has not been a notable or conspicuous failure in the flour-mill 
business in the Territory, and out of the 60 concerns established more 
than 20 have made records of conspicuous success. 

BANKS. 

The highly satisfactory condition of Oklahoma's banks both national 
and Territorial, is indisputable evidence of our prosperity. The num- 
ber of institutions given in my report last year has been considerably 
augmented by the addition of 80 Territorial and 19 national. The act 
of the last legislature fixing $10,000 as the minimum capital stock of 
Territorial banks has had the effect of lessening the number of appli- 
cations and promoting a healthier condition. The average reserve held 
by national banks is 30 per cent and that of Territorial banks 52 per 
cent. Attention is directed to the fact that the reserve carried by the Ter- 
ritorial institutions is nearly four times that required by law. By com- 
paring with last year's report it is a noticeable fact that the total capital 
invested in the banking business in the Territory has increased over 
$1,500,000. 

The statistics which I give below have been furnished me by the 
'J'erritorial bank examiner. 

Consolidated statement showing condition of both national and Territorial 
banks, bting all banks in Oklahoma Territory at close of business 

June 10. 1903. 

RESOURCES. 

Loans and discounts $15,433,531.72 

Overdrafts 605,968.94 

United States bonds and premiums 1,684,434.71 

Stocks, securities, judgments, and claims 824,574.47 

Due from all blanks 6,457,550.53 

Banking-house furniture and fixtures 972,494.26 

Other real estate 72,127.25 

Internal revenue 677.70 

Cash, specie, exchanges, and items 2,431,145.11 

Total 28,482,504.69 



52 KEPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital Stock $4,818,830.00 

Surplus 532,114.98 

Undivided profits 926,573.90 

National bank notes outstanding 1,171,900.00 

Deposits 20,738,763.37 

Bills payable 234,437.97 

Bills rediscounted 49,615,54 

All other liabilities 10,268.93 

Total $28,482,504.69 

Total number of banks 311 

Average reserve per cent. . 41 

Per capita deposit for people of Oklahoma, on basis of 600,000 population, 
is $34. One bank to each 1,929 persons on same basis of population. 



INVESTMENTS — PUBLIC AND PRIVATE. 

Eastern capital has during recent years found Oklahoma a safe and 
profitable field for investment. Enterprises requiring funds to develop 
their possibilities into a possible realization have received substantial 
support. Municipal bonds command a premium. Farm loans are par- 
ticularly satisfactory to the capitalists, as they are safe and secure and 
the interest is universally promptly paid. Foreclosures are very rare. 
Mercantile business throughout the Territory is enjoying a healthy, vig- 
orous growth. In this regard R. G. Dunn & Co. present the following 
facts : 

The general tenor of reports from all over the Territory indicate that a 
large volume of business was transacted during the past year, and onr re- 
ports show the merchants to be in good financial -condition. The increase in 
the new traders in the Territory, as well as the incrase in the number of 
towns during the past ten years, has been remarkable. 



CHURCHES, SOCIAL AND FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

All the leading denominations have representatives in the Terri- 
tory and are progressive workers. There has been a satisfactory growth 
in church membership during the past year, and many new edifices for 
worship have been erected. Social life has much the same aspects as in 
older settled communities. Every town has its women's clubs, musical 
and social societies, literary circles, and the Chautauqua society holds 
annual gatherings at several conveniently located points. The fraternal 
societies have a large and growing membership, the general good fellow- 
ship which generally prevails among our people making this a partic- 
ularly good field for organizations of this character. The membership 
of the various organizations has been reported to me to be as follows : 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 53 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

Church buildings 160 

Value of church buildings $200,160 

Parsonages 79 

Value df parsonages $47,265 

Members 13,900 

Number of pastorial charges 160 

Number of Sunday schools 215 

Number of officers and teachers 1,785 

Number of scholars 14,369 

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

Organized missions 16 

Other regular stations 17 

Church buildings 17 

Parsonages 8 

Clergy 10 

Communicants 804 

Children in Sunday school 300 

Value of church property $42,000 

Total contributions $10,000 

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

Number of churches 85 

Membership 2,600 

Church buildings 73 

Value of church property $85,000 

Preachers 40 

Colored churches 3 

Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor 29 

Sunday schools 105 

Membership 4,000 

Expended by Home Missionary Society $150,000 

FRIENDS. 

Total white membership 1,509 

Indian members 180 

Indian missions 5 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

Church organizations 62 

Church membership 3,100 

Church buildings 44 

Manses 16 

Value of church property $100,000 

Colored churches 2 

Academies 2 

Ministers 42 

Sunday-school missionaries 4 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH SOUTH. 

Charges 55 

Societies and churches 171 

Presiding elders 5 

Pastors 55 

Local Preachers 64 

Church members 9,451 

Additions 670 

Church buildings (value, $80,790) 72 

Parsonages (value. $17,200) 43 

Epworth Leagues 26 

Membership Epworth Leagues 755 

Sunday schools 87 

Officers and teachers . . . .' 499 

Scholars 4,040 



54 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

Number of organizations 270 

Membership 16,000 

Buildings ^'^ 

Value of buildings $225,000 

Preachers 1^0 

Colored preachers 6 

Colored churches 5 

Young People's Societies of Christian Endeavor 45 

Sunday schools 150 

BAPTIST CHURCH. 

Churches: 

White 280 

Colored 95 

Membership: 

White 13,000 

Colored 4,100 

Ministers: 

White 250 

Colored 100 

Membership of Sunday schools 9,000 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

Bishop 1 

Priests 29 

Churches 53 

Chapels 6 

Stations visited 127 

New residences for priests 2 

Membership 15,000 

Academies 2 

Colleges for boys 2 

Schools for boys and girls 10 

Schools for colored 2 

Convents 13 

Monasteries 2 

Hospital 1 

Value of school and church property $200,000 

MEMBERSHIP OF COLORED CHURCHES. 

Missionary Baptist 8,682 

African Methodist Episcopal Church 3,640 

Colored Methodist Episcopal Church 820 

Methodist Episcopal Church (colored wing) 840 

Primitive Baptist 486 

Colored Presbyterian 14l 

Congregational 412 

Church of God 201 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S SOCIETIES OF CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR. 

Young people's societies 182 

Members 6,360 

Junior societies 21 

Members 420 

Total societies 203 

Total membership 6,780 

New societies 27 

Associate members uniting with the church during the year 546 

Money given by the societies for missions and church expenses $7,250 

SUNDAY SCHOOLS. 

Number of schools 15,000 

Officers and teachers 10,000 

Scholars 80,000 




SCENES OX ONE OKLAHOMA FARM. 




A HLXi.'H iiK (iKl.Allw.MA tlW.IM' 1U<K.\; 




SNAP SHOTS IN THE WESTERN PARTS OF THE TERRITORY 




100.000 THREE-MONTH OLD APPLE GRAFTS. 




FKED TlilE UX AX OKLAHOMA HOG liAXCH. 







.^.^ 



THE OKLAHOMA "HEN." 
A DISTINCTIVE SOURCE OF REVENUE 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 



55 



PRATERNAl, ORGANIZATIONS. 



Masons 

A. O. U. W 

Odd Fellows 

K. of P 

W. ofW 

C. A. R 

Confederate Veterans 

Kastern Star 

Order of Elts 

W. C. T. U 

Women's Federated Clubs 

Women's Relief Corps 

Rebckah I^odges 

Knights Templars 

Scottish Rite Masons 

Rathbone Sisters 



Organi- 


New 


Mem- 


New 


zations 


za lions 


bers 


bers 


92 


13 


4.148 


SKi 


50 


2 


2,312 


119 


272 


91 


13,242 


5,415 


49 


5 


2,491 


40 


119 


14 


3,354 


592 


70 


4 


1,509 


147 


29 


4 


1,500 




40 


15 


1,000 


(500 





1 


709 


152 


135 


11 


2,050 


250 


4a 


y 


1,025 


180 


a5 


7 


(S22 


134 


57 


22 


2,700 


528 


8 




343 


31 


1 

a 




54« 
200 


133 









Value ot 
property 



1100,000.00 
25,219.37 



1,095.93 



8,500.00 
1,500.00 
3,000.00 
1,787.00 
2,154.00 
1,000.00 
75,000.00 
300.00 



DAILY NEWSPAPERS PUBLISHED IN OKLAHOMA. 

Anadarko: Democrat. 

El Reno: Evening Bell, Democrat, American. 

Lawton: Democrat, Enterprise. 

Enid: Wave, News, Eagle. 

Pond Creek: Vidette, 

Ponca: Courier. 

Blackwell: News. 

Newkirk: Socialist. 

Kingfisher: Star. 

Hennessey: Eagle. 

Hobart: News-Republican. 

Chandler: Publicist. 

Guthrie: Oklahoma State Capital, Leader. 

Perry: Enterprise-Times, Republican. 

Oklahoma: Times-Journal, Oklahoman. 

Stillwater: Democrat. 

Shawnee: Quill, Democrat, Evening News. 

Alva: Pioneer. 



COUNTIES WITH STATISTICS OF EACH. 

Below is presented a brief statement of general information con- 
cerning each county in the Territory. 

Beaver County, — Location, extreme northwest; area, 3,681,000 acres; pop- 
ulation, 3,168 (1902 enumeration); land taxed, 168,908 acres; number of school 
districts, 52; number of school children, 1,148; school land in county, 1,438% 
quarter sections; county seat, Beaver; other leading towns, Kenton and Guy- 
mon; principal occupation of people, stock raising and agriculture; products, 
cattle, sheep, horses, and stock feed; undeveloped resources, fruit raising 
and agriculture by irrigation. 

Blaine County. — Location, middle west; area. 656,000 acres; population, 
15,189 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $1,689,512; land taxed, 224,891 
acres; county bonded debt, $45,500; county tax levy, 27 mills; amount expend- 
ed for county purposes, $39,385.58; number of school districts, 88; number of 
school children, 4,564; school land in county, 226 quarter sections; Govern- 
ment land subject to homestead entry, 395 acres; county seat, Watonga; other 
leading towns, Geary, Okeene, Homestead, Hitchcock, and Greenfield; princi- 
pal occupation of people, agriculture and stock raising; products, wheat, cot- 
ton, corn, caster bean , peaches, hogs, cattle , salt, and cement; manufacturing 
industries, salt works, cement mills, and flouring mills; undelveloped resour- 
ces, deposits of gypsum, salt and building stone. 



56 REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 

Caddo County. — Location, south central; area, 979,000 acres; population, 
25,639 (1902 enumeration); land taxed, 21,319 acres; number of school dis- 
tricts, 155; number of school children, 5,678; school land in county, 544 quarter 
sections; Government land subject to homestead entry, 2,867 acres; county 
seat, Anadarko; other leading towns, Caddo, Fort Cobb, Cement, Sickles, 
Apache, Bridgeport, Hydro; principal occupation of people, agriculture and 
stock raising; products, wheat, cotton, corn, and live stock; manufacturing 
industries, ice plants, and flouring mills; undeveloped resources, cement beds, 
gas and oil wells, and minerals. 

Canadian County.— Location, south central; area, 598,630 acres; population 
15,200 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $3,341,445; land taxed, 358,770 
acres; county bonded debt, $103,500; county tax levy, 15.75 mills; amount ex- 
pended for county purposes, $96,958.26; number of school districts, 96; number 
of school children, 5,900; school land in county, 210 quarter sections; Govern- 
ment land to homestead entry, 882 acres; county seat. El Reno; other leading 
towns, Okarche, Yukon, Calumet, Union, and Mustang; principal occupation of 
people, agriculture; products, wheat, cotton, corn, cattle, and hogs; manurac- 
turing industries, flouring mills and cement works; undeveloped resources,, 
cement and clay deposits. 

Cleveland County. — Location, extreme south; area, 348,000 acres; popula- 
tion, 17,253 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $2,137,309; land taxed, 
276,401 acres; county bonded debt, $76,500; county tax levy, 15 mills; amount 
expended^ or county purposes, $39,497.26; number of school districts, 69; num- 
ber of school children, 6,951; school land in county, 122 quarter sections; Gov- 
ernment land subject to homestead entry, none; county seat, Norman; other 
leading towns, Lexingon, Noble, and Moore; principal occupation of people, 
agriculture; products, corn, wheat, cotton, hogs, cattle, and sheep; manufac- 
districts, 185; number of school children, 7,539; school land in county, 1,016 
turing industries, cotton-seed oil mill, flouring mills, and ice plants. 

Comanche County. — Location, southwestern; area, 1,845,000 acres; popula- 
tion, 25,509 (1902 enumeration); land taxed, 100,736 acres; number of school 
districts, 185; number of school children, 7,539; school land in county, 1,016 
quarter sections; Government land subject to homestead entry, 14,610 acres; 
county seat, Lawton; other leading towns, Waurika, Park City, Temple, Wal- 
ters, Apache, Frederick, and Texana; principal occupation of people, agricul- 
ture, stock raising, and mining; products, wheat, corn, cotton, live stock; 
manufacturing industries, flouring mill, ice plant; undeveloped resources, 
building stone, oil, and mineral deposits. 

Custer County. — Location, central west; area, 647,000 acres; population 
16,127 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $2,785,748; land taxed, 221,919 
acres; county bonded debt, $38,800; tax levy 13 1-2 mills amount expended 
for county purposes, $38,242.85; number of school districts, 112; number 
of school children, 5,124; school land in county, 290 quarter sections: Govern- 
ment land subject to homestead entry, 1,703 acres; county seat, Arapahoe; 
other leading towns, Weatherford, Independence, Clinton, Parkerburg, and 
Thomas; manufacturing industries, flouring mills; principal occupation of 
people, agriculture and stock raising; products, corn, cotton, wheat, hogs, and 
cattle; undeveloped resources, cement and building stone deposits. 

Day County. — Location, extreme west; area 666,000 acres, population, 4,966 
(1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $407,514; land taxed, 30,950 acres; 
county bonded debt, $19,800; county tax. levy, 28.9 mills; amount expended 
for county purposes, $14,098.29; number of school districts, 44; number of 
school children, 1,651; school land in county, 240 quarter sections; Govern- 
ment land subject to homestead entry, 109,402 acres; county seat. Grand; 
other leading towns, loland, Texmo, and Stone; principal occupation of peo- 
ple, stock raising and agriculture; products, cattle and cattle feed. 

Dewey County. — Location, north middle west; area, 638,000 acrts; popula- 
tion, 11,358 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $979,067; land taxed, 
93,118 acres; county bonded debt, $34,450; county tax levy, 33 mills; amount 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA. 57 

expended for county purposes, $63,796.10; number of schcx)! districts, 89; num- 
ber of school 'Children, 3,848; school land in county, 259 quarter sections; 
Government land subject to homestead entry, 7,000 acres; county seat, Talo- 
ga; other leading towns, Seiling, Butte, and Blaine; principal occuption of 
people, agriculture and stock raising; products, corn, wheat, Kaffir corn, cas- 
tor beans, and cattle; undeveloped resources, cement deposits. 

Garfield County. — Location, north central; area, 640,000 acres; population, 
23,732 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, ?3,759,453; land taxed, 490,4.34 
acres; county bonded debt, $46,000; county tax levy, 13 mills; amount expend- 
ed for county purposes, $53,920.13; number of school districts, 128; number of 
school children, 7,901; school land in county, 465 quarter sections; Govern- 
ment land subject to homestead entry, none, county seat, Enid; other leading 
towns, Waukomis, North Enid, Kremlin, Roper, and Garber; principal occu- 
pation of people, agriculture; products, wheat, corn, castor beans, and fruit; 
manufacturing Industries, flouring mill.s, brickyards, and ice plants; undevel- 
oped resources, cement and clay deposits. 

Grant County.— Location, middle north; area, 672,000 acres; population, 
19,096 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $3,423,855; land taxed, 466,894 
acres; county bonded debt, $29,000; county tax levy, 10% mills; amount ex- 
pended for county purposes, $48,775.26; number of school districts, 124; num- 
ber of school children, 6,497; school land in county, 480 quarter sections; Gov- 
ernment land subject to homestead entry, none; county seat, Pond Creek, 
other leading towns, Medford, Jefferson, Manchester, Hunter, Lamont, and 
Eddy; principal occupation of people, agriculture; products, wheat, corn, cas- 
tor beans, cattle and hogs; manufacturing industries, flouring mills; undevel- 
oped resources, salt plains. 

Greer County. — Location, extreme southwest; area, 1,511,575 acres; popula- 
tion, 29,771 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $4,174,776; land taxed, 
404,821 acres; county bonded debt, $20,000; county tax levy, 13.1 mills; 
amount expended for county purposes, $49,151.21; number of school districts, 
109; number of school children, 11,120; school land in county, 1,134 quarter 
sections; Government land subject to homestead entry, 34,000 acres; county 
seat, Mangum; other leading towns, Altus, Navajoe, Granite, Leger, Texola, 
and Eldorado; principal occupation of people, agriculture and stock raising; 
products, wheat, corn, cotton, cane, cattle, hogs, and sheep; manufacturing 
industries, salt and cement works, flouring mills; undeveloped resources, 
granite quarry, cement deposits, oil and gas wells. 

Kay County. — Location, northeast; area, 575,000 acres; population, 22,766 
(1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $3,775,955; land taxed, 340,030 acres; 
county bonded debt, $35,000; county tax levy, 17.8 mills; amount expended 
for county purposes, $36,652.24; number of school districts, 89; number of 
school children, 7,559; school land in county, 325 quarter sections; Govern- 
ment land subject to homestead entry, none; county seat, Newkirk; other 
leading towns, Ponca, Blackwell, Tonkawa, Kildare, and Kaw city; principal 
occupation of people, agriculture; products, wheat, corn, cattle, and hogs; 
manufacturing industries, flouring mills, cement works, brickyards, and stone 
quarries; undeveloped resources, cement and stone deposits. 

Kingfisher County— Location, central; area 493,570 acres; population, 19,594 
(1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $3,369,469; land taxed, 472,435 acres; 
county bonded debt, $40,900; county tax levy, 0.17 mills; amount expended 
for county purposes, $51,195.58; number of school districts, 117 number of 
school children, 6,985; school land in county, 200 quarter sections; Govern- 
ment land subject to homestead entry, none; county seat. Kingfisher; other 
leading towns, Hennessey, Cashion, Dover, and Kiel; principal occupation of 
people, agriculture; products, corn, wheat, cotton, castor beans; manufactur- 
ing industries, fiouring mills, ice plants, cement works; undeveloped re- 
sources, cement beds. 

Kiowa County. — Location, south central; area, 734,000. acres; population, 
22,685 (1902 enumeration); land taxed, 34,764 acres; number of school dis- 



o8 EEPOET OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHOMA, 

tricts, 94; number of school children, 5,052; school land in county, 720 quartei 
sections; Government land subject to homestead entry, 5,081 acres; county 
seat, Hobart; other leading towns, Harrison, Lone Wolf, Mountain View, 
Roosevelt, Snyder, and Mountain Park; principal occupation of people, agri- 
culture and stock raising; products, wheat, corn, cotton, and live stock; man- 
ufacturing industries, cotton mill, cotton compress, ice plant, flouring mill, 
farm machinery manufactory; undeveloped resources, stone, gas, and mineral 
deposits. 

Lincoln County. — Location, middle east; area, 619,000 acres; population, 
28,904 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $3,611,497; land taxed, 427,648 
acres, county bonded debt, $67,000; county tax levy, 27% mills; amount ex- 
pended for county purposes, $58,642.89; number of school districts, 135; num- 
ber of school children, 10,477; school land in county, 212 quarter sections; 
Government land subject to homestead entry, 32 acres; county seat. Chand- 
ler; other leading towns, Stroud, Wellston, and Fallis; principal occupation of 
people, agriculture; products, cotton, corn, peanuts, castor beans, hogs, and 
cattle; manufacturing industries, oil mills, flouring mills, pressed brick plant; 
undeveloped resources, cement and clay deposits. 

Logan County. — Location, east central; area, 456,000; population, 38,- 
562 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $4,911,079; land taxed, 438,894 acres 
county bonded debt, $163,000; county tax levy, 171/2 mills; amount expended 
for county purposes, $84,973.18; number of school districts, 110; number of 
school children, 8,648; school land in county, 165 quarter sections; Govern- 
ment land subject to homestead entry, none; county seat Guthrie; other 
leading towns, Mulhall, Orlando, Coyle, and Navina; principal occupation of 
people, agriculture and commerce; products, wheat, com, cotton, fruits, mel- 
ons, castor beans, cattle hogs, broom corn; manufacturing industries, oil 
mill, flouring mills, planing mills, broom factory, foundries, ice plants, etc. 

Noble County — Location northeast; area 398,000 acres; population, 12,028; 
(1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $2,782,907; land taxed, 306,190 acres; 
county bonded debt, $70,500; county tax levy, 19i/^ mills; amount expended 
for county purposes, $132,420.73; number of school districts, 67; number of 
school children, 3,862; school land in county, 192 quarter sections; Govern- 
ment land subject to homestead entry, none; county seat Perry; other lead- 
ing towns, Billings, Morrison, and Red Rock; principal occupation of peo- 
ple, agriculture; products, wheat, corn, cotton, castor beans, cattle, and hogs; 
manufacturing industries, flouring mills, ice plant. 

Oklahoma County.— Location, south central; area, 461,720 acres; popula- 
tion, 32,761 (1902 enumertion); taxable valuation, $7,062,444; land taxed,387,606 
acres; county bonded debt, $137,600; county tax levy, 12 mills; amount ex- 
pended for county purposes, $89,406.13; number of school districts, 105; num- 
ber of school children, 10,366; school land in county, 159 quarter sections; 
Government land subject to homestead entry none; county seat, Oklahoma 
City; other leading towns, Edmond, Luther, Choctaw City, Jones, Britton; 
principal occupation of people, agriculture and commerce; products, wheat, 
com, cotton, fruits, grapes, cattle, and hogs; manufacturing industries, oil 
nill, cotton compress, flouring mills, brickyards, broom factory, ice plant, 
etc. 

Pawnee County — Location, extreme northeast; area, 333,000 acres; popula- 
tion, 13,327 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $2,317,021; land taxed. 
158,523 acres; county bonded debt, $32,000; county tax levy, 30 mills; amount 
expended for county purposes, $70,361.93; number of school districts, 80; num- 
ber of school children, .4,906; school land in county,. 200 quarter sections: 
Government land subject to homestead entry, 58 acres; county seat. Pawnee; 
other leading towns, Cleveland, Blackburn, Jennings, Ralston; principal oc- 
cupation of people, agriculture and stock raising; products, wheat, corn, 
cotton, castor beans, cattle, and hogs; manufacturing industries, flouring 
mills, sawmills, ice plants; undeveloped resources, building stone deposits, 

Payne County — Location, northeast; area 484,000 acres; population, 22,084 
(1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $3,812,330; land taxed, 364,068 acres; 



REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF OKLAHO]\[A. 59 

county bonded debt, $78,000; county tax levy, 9^/4 mills; amount expended for 
county purposes, $43,088.10; number of school districts, 100; number of school 
children, 8,404; school land in county, 198 quarter sections; Government land 
subject to homestead entry none; county seat, Stillwater; other leading 
towns, Perkins, Ripley, Gushing, Glencoe; principal occupation of people, 
agriculture: products, wheat, corn, cattle, cotton, castor beans, and fruits; 
manufacturing industries, flouring mills, brick and ice plants. 

Pottawatomie Gounty — Location, extreme south; area, 501,000 acres; popu- 
lation, 39,054 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $3,676,103; land taxed, 
265,607 acres; county bonded debt, 51,500; county tax levy, 15^^ mills; amount 
expended for county purposes, $58,359.56; number of school districts, 112; 
number of school children, 11,716; school land in county, 168 quarter sections; 
Government land subject to homestead entry, none; county seat, Tecumseh; 
other leading towns, Shawnee, McLoud, Avoca, Keokuk Falls, Dale, and 
Earlsboro; principal occupation of people, agriculture; products, wheat, cot- 
ton, corn, cattle, hogs, peaches, apples, and grapes; manufacturing industries, 
flouring mill, oil mill, railway shops, brickyard^; undeveloped resources, 
building-stone and clay deposits. 

Roger Mills Gounty. — Location, extreme west; area, 757,000 acres; popula- 
tion, 10,407 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $1,514,375; land taxed, 
77,654 acres; county bonded debt, $37,650; county tax levy, 20 mills; amount 
expended for county purposes, $26,972.47; number of school districts, 49; num- 
ber of school children, 4,140; school land in county, 265 quarter sections; Gov- 
ernment land subject to homestead entry, 16,218 acres; county seat, Chey- 
enne; other leading towns, Berlin, Busch, and Sayre; principal occupation of 
people, agriculture and stock raising; products, cattle and cattle feed, corn, 
cotton, and w^heat. 

Washita Gounty. — Location, southwest; area, 1,275,000 acres; population, 
19,880 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $1,785,725; land taxed, 230.405 
acres; county bonded debti, $78,000; county tax levy, 44.9 mills; amount ex- 
pended for county purposes, $50,225; number of school districts, 89! number 
of school children, 7,376; school land in county, 256 quarter sections; Govern- 
ment land subject to homestead entry, none; county seat, Gordell; other 
leading towns, Gloud Ghief, Herald, Wood, Rocky, Foss, Stout, Sentinel; prin- 
cipal occupation of people, agriculture; products, Gotton, wheat, corn, castor 
beans, cattle, and hogs; undeveloped resources, cement and gypsum beds. 

Woods Gounty. — Location, central north; area, 1,732,000 acres; population, 
46,302 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $6,553,761; land taxed, 864,596 
acres; county bonded debt, $47,000; county tax levy, 10 mills; amount expend- 
ed for county purposes, $$55,750.76; number of school districts, 260; number of 
school children, 14,908; school land in county, 1,223 quarter sections; Govern- 
ment land subject to homstead entry, 43,916 acres; county seat, Alva; other 
leading towns, Cleo, Agusta, Garmen, Ingersoll, Ringwood, Rusk, Aline, Ye- 
wed. Waynoka; principal occupation of people, agriculture and stock raising; 
products, wheat, corn, cane, castor, beans, peaches, cattle, and hogs; manu- 
factoring industries, flouring mills, creameries; undeveloped resources, salt, 
guano deposits. 

Woodward County — Location, northwest; area, 2,124,000 acres; population, 
17.163 (1902 enumeration); taxable valuation, $2,373,234.60; land taxed, 224,334 
acres; county bonded debt, $15,855; county tax levy, 23^/^ mills; amount ex- 
pended for county purposes, $140,937.13; number of school districts, 182; num- 
ber of school children, 6,644; school land in county, 102 quarter sections; Gov- 
ernment land subject to homestead entry, none; county seat. Woodward; 
other leading towns, Curtis, Alston, Gage, Tangier, and Shattuck; principal 
occupation of people, agriculture and stock raising; products, cattle, sheep, 
wheat, corn, cane; undeveloped resources, salt and cement deposits. 





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A FEW REPRESENTATIVE BUILDINGS IN CITIES OF OKLAHOMA. 



LIBRftRY OF CONGRESS 



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